PSYCHOLOGY- FREUD & JUNG
Freud’s approach officially began in 1895, but many early philosophers and psychologists had presented similar concepts which influenced this system before it was officially established. This approach tries to find a comfortable balance between unacceptable impulses and society. There were many people that influenced Freud and the psychoanalytic approach. This approach placed emphasis on the idea that unconscious motivations are what determines one’s actions.
St. Paul had an early influence on psychoanalysis with his discussion of the three aspects of human nature. These aspects were body, mind and soul. These aspects correspond roughly with Freud’s concept of the id, ego and superego, respectively. Freud was also influenced by Descartes’ belief that there is an interaction between the mind and the body. Spinoza also made some contributions to this approach by developing his theory of emotions. Freud felt that Spinoza’s idea of passion was similar to his idea of unconscious motivation. If passion controls one’s life one will make irrational decisions. Herbart’s idea of an apperceptive mass corresponds to Freud’s idea of the unconscious mind. Both Herbart and Freud thought that ideas that are not being used at a given time are stored in the unconscious.
The romantic philosophers also influenced Freud. Goethe introduced the concept of “storm and stress”. Both Goethe and Freud believed that life was a constant struggle between opposing forces. Schopenhauer influenced Freud with his idea of self-preservation and his belief that the will to survive is the basic human need. Freud was especially interested in Schopenhauer’s analogy of life as a postponement of death. Schopenhauer was the first to introduce ways to control emotions. Sublimation is the redirecting of unacceptable behaviors into more socially acceptable forms of behavior.
Freud also introduced repression, which is a form of denial, mainly of bodily pleasures. Schopenhauer also coined the term resistance, which blocked patient’s abilities to remember painful experiences. Freud later used these ideas in his psychoanalytic approach. Freud has been labeled as the founder of clinical psychology. Breuer taught Freud a great deal about the unconscious, which led to Freud’s later discovery of psychoanalysis through hypnosis. Breuer discovered that the repressed memories were causing some of the problems that his patients were currently experiencing. Psychoanalysis is a retrospective therapy which does not predict future behavior. Freud’s psychoanalytic therapy preceded all treatment that explains the present in terms of past experiences. Psychoanalysis tries to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness so they can be dealt with more effectively. This approach attempts to help people live more anxiety-free lives. Psychoanalysis deals mainly with resolving traumatic childhood experiences but it can be a lengthy process. Both Breuer and Freud began psychoanalysis by hypnotizing their patients and asking them to remember painful experiences.
Freud eventually abandoned the use of hypnosis and used free association and dream analysis to uncover unconscious motivation. This process involves the release of emotions caused by traumatic experiences one had as a child. Freud placed a lot of emphasis on sexual motivations, which later led to some of his students breaking away from his theory. Freud’s idea of sexual motivations were not very acceptable in the strict society of Vienna at that time.
Psychoanalysis began as a conceptual system designed to explain certain types of psychopathology. It later developed into a technique of treatment and finally expanded to a theory of personality of both normal and disturbed individuals. Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes biological determinants of behavior, early experiences in childhood, and evolutionary processes. Psychoanalysis, a depth psychology, views the mind as an entity containing primitive and sophisticated elements, hierarchically based instincts (known as the ID) striving for expression against more structured reality-based elements (known as EGO), which strive to make instinctual gratification consonant with internalized moral standards (known as SUPEREGO). Since psychoanalytic theory views psychopathology as a clash of forces within the mind, it is dynamic. Based upon deterministic principles, its foundation depends upon strict causality. The clashing forces within the personality are, for the most part, unconscious, but nevertheless have effects on conscious feelings and behavior.
An unconscious having effects on conscious (higher) levels of the personality is known as a dynamic unconscious and represents the most fundamental unique hypothesis of psychoanalytic theory. Psychoanalytic treatment essentially is based upon interpretation by the analyst of unconscious motivations. Because the patient is allowed to verbalize freely (free association, he ascribes certain attributes of infantile feelings and relationships onto the therapist (transference). The classical analyst confines his therapy to the interpretation of the transference. Other than the immutability of a few fundamental concepts, psychoanalysis is far from static. This is due to a unique interplay between learning and research activities and therapeutic application, One augments the other. The interplay leads to therapeutic interventions aimed at alleviating the misery of many apparently hopeless patients. Today, the psychoanalytic method, by focusing upon the structure of the psychic apparatus, in addition to instinctual impulses, permits a wider range of emotional disorders to be treated psychoanalytically than was the case originally.
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Jung’s theory divides the psyche into three parts. The first is the ego,which Jung identifies with the conscious mind. Closely related is the personal unconscious, which includes anything which is not presently conscious, but can be. The personal unconscious is like most people’s understanding of the unconscious in that it includes both memories that are easily brought to mind and those that have been suppressed for some reason. But it does not include the instincts that Freud would have it include.
But then Jung adds the part of the psyche that makes his theory stand out from all others: the collective unconscious. You could call it your “psychic inheritance.” It is the reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with. And yet we can never be directly conscious of it. It influences all of our experiences and behaviors, most especially the emotional ones, but we only know about it indirectly, by looking at those influences.
There are some experiences that show the effects of the collective unconscious more clearly than others: The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you’ve been here before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths, could all be understood as the sudden conjunction of our outer reality and the inner reality of the collective unconscious. Grander examples are the creative experiences shared by artists and musicians all over the world and in all times, or the spiritual experiences of mystics of all religions, or the parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies, fairy tales, and literature.
A nice example that has been greatly discussed recently is the near-death experience. It seems that many people, of many different cultural backgrounds, find that they have very similar recollections when they are brought back from a close encounter with death. They speak of leaving their bodies, seeing their bodies and the events surrounding them clearly, of being pulled through a long tunnel towards a bright light, of seeing deceased relatives or religious figures waiting for them, and of their disappointment at having to leave this happy scene to return to their bodies. Perhaps we are all “built” to experience death in this fashion.
Based on an Article by