1. Aum, the word, is all
this [i.e. the whole universe]. A clear explanation of it is as follows:
All that is past, present, and future is, indeed, Aum. And whatever else
there is, beyond the three—fold division of time – that also is truly
2. All this is, indeed,
Brahman. This Atman is Brahman. This same Atman has four quarters (padas).
3. The first quarter (pada)
is called Vaisvanara, whose sphere of activity is the waking state, who is
conscious of external objects, who has seven limbs and nineteen mouths,
and who is the experiencer of gross objects.
4. The second quarter (pada)
is Tajasa, whose sphere of activity is the dream state, who is conscious
of internal objects, who is endowed with seven limbs and nineteen mouths,
and who is the experiencer of subtle objects.
5. That is the state of
deep sleep wherein one asleep neither desires any object nor sees any
dream. The third quarter is Prajna, whose sphere is deep sleep, in whom
all experiences become unified, who is, verily, a mass of consciousness,
who is full of bliss and experiences bliss, and who is the door leading to
the knowledge [of dreaming and waking].
6. He is the Lord of all.
He is the knower of all. He is the inner controller. He is the source of
all; for from him all beings originate and in him they finally disappear.
7. Turiya is not that
which is conscious of the inner (subjective) world, nor that which is
conscious of the outer (objective) world, nor that which is conscious of
both, nor that which is a mass of consciousness. It is not simple
consciousness nor is It unconsciousness. It is unperceived, unrelated,
incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable, and indescribable. The essence
of the Consciousness manifesting as the self [in the three states], It is
the cessation of all phenomena; It is all peace, all bliss, and
non—dual. That is what is known as the Fourth (Turiya). This is Atman,
and this has to be realized.
8. The same Atman
[explained before as being endowed with four quarters] is now described
from the standpoint of the syllable AUM. AUM, too, divided into parts, is
viewed from the standpoint of letters. The quarters [of Atman] are the
same as the letters of AUM, and the letters are the same as the quarters.
The letters are A, U, and M.
9. Vaisvanara Atman, whose
sphere of activity is the waking state, is A, the first letter [of AUM],
on account of his all—pervasiveness or on account of his being the
first. He who knows this obtains all desires and becomes first [among the
10. Taijasa Atman, whose sphere of activity is the
dream state is U, the second letter [of AUM], on account of his
superiority or intermediateness. He who knows this attains a superior
knowledge, receives equal treatment from all, and finds in his family no
one ignorant of Brahman.
11. Prajna Atman, whose
sphere is deep sleep, is M, the third letter [of AUM], because both are
the measure and also because in them all become one. He who knows this is
able to measure all and also comprehends all within himself.
12. The Fourth (Turiya) is without parts and without
relationship; It is the cessation of phenomena; It is all good and
non—dual. This AUM is verily Atman. He who knows this merges his self in
Atman – yea, he who knows this.