QUARKS TO QUASARS
“Quarks are fundamental matter particles that are constituents of neutrons and protons and other hadrons. There are six different types of quarks. Each quark type is called a flavor. There are up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom types of quarks and the names doesn’t indicate anything of their qualities but their behavior in electric fields.
Quarks can only exist inside hadrons because they are confined by the strong (or color charge) force fields. Therefore, we cannot measure their mass by isolating them. Furthermore, the mass of a hadron gets contributions from quark kinetic energy and from potential energy due to strong interactions. For hadrons made of the light quark types, the quark mass is a small contribution to the total hadron mass. For example, compare the mass of a proton (0.938 GeV/c2) to the sum of the masses of two up quarks and one down quark (total of 0.02 GeV/c2).
The quantity we call quark mass is actually related to the m in F = ma (force = mass x acceleration). This equation tells us how an object will behave when a force is applied. The equations of particle physics include, for example, calculations of what happens to a quark when struck by a high energy photon. The parameter we call quark mass controls its acceleration when a force is applied. It is fixed to give the best match between theory and experiment both for the ratio of masses of various hadrons and for the behavior of quarks in high energy experiments. However, neither of these methods can precisely determine quark masses.”
When radio telescopes were first turned on the heavens, point sources of radio waves were discovered (along with spread-out regions of emission along our Milky Way). Astronomers using ordinary visible-light telescopes turned toward these radio points and looked to see what was there. In some cases a supernova remnant was found, in others, a large star-birth region, in others a distant galaxy. But in some places where point sources of radio waves were found, no visible source other than a stellar-looking object was found (it looked like a point of like — like a star does). These objects were called the “quasi-stellar radio sources”, or “quasars” for short.
Later, it was found these sources could not be stars in our galaxy, but must be very far away — as far as any of the distant galaxies seen. We now think these objects are the very bright centers of some distant galaxies, where some sort of energetic action is occurring, most probably due to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of that galaxy (supermassive = made up from a mass of about a billion solar masses). The region of intense visible emission is quite small compared to the rest of the galaxy that it is imbedded in. The visible emission only occurs very near the center of the galaxy. On the other hand, huge regions of radio emission, produced by the quasar, can stretch out to large distances outside the galaxy.
The electrons near the center of the quasar may be accelerated to speeds near the speed of light. In the presence a magnetic field (which is present in these same regions), the electrons move along helical paths (paths that look like a stretched out slinky), and as a result, they emit radio waves (it’s called synchrotron radiation, since these waves are observed on Earth when physicists send high energy electrons around in circles using magnetic fields, in particle accelerators call synchrotrons).
Since the light takes billions of years to get to us from a quasar, the quasars are all supposed to be very old. There are no nearby quasars, so there are no young quasars; quasars are not made during our era of the universe, only during an ancient era. This also implies the universe was different place in the past (billions of years ago). It also says the galaxies we see around us now may have been quasars in the distant past; even our Milky Way galaxy may have been a quasar-like galaxy long ago — now not much material falls into the large black hole at the Milky Way’s center, so the radiation output from the center is not as great as it used to be.
A pulsar is a much smaller mass object, much smaller in radius and not a black hole, but a neutron star (it “failed” to become a black hole during its birth due to a supernova explosion of some single star). However, the neutron star is nearly as compact as a black hole of that star’s mass. Magnetic fields near the blackhole and a pulsar may be similar in structure and have something to do with some energy output of each.
The quarks and gluons, while considered to be the fundamental particles in our present time, subquarks may be studied in detail in the next decade, and the properties described as the Dibaryon structure ( Theosophical Society Articles on Subatomic particles) or the anti spinning combinations of points of photons in side each flavor of quark would be found out. But the basic question of the structure of universe would still be eluding the scientific community of the modern era, as the gravity as a single and most prominent entity in quantum or astronomical physics stand mocking and humiliating the most egoistic researchers. The ‘Graviton’ theory is still a speculative concept and no recent advances are made in the traditional ways of using billion dollars worth particle accelerators to isolate or trap the gravitons in real time.
The theories and hypotheses are numerous, but when practical application comes, all the researchers are at the mercy of Gravity; as they are working inside the sphere of Maya which is otherwise called Gravity, and as long as Gravity is influencing a mind, the results interpreted by this mind would be variable. After all our eyes are equipped to see and perceive only very limited range of the spectrum of light which starts from infinity and ends back in infinity. The quarks are manifesting the three basic principles of life which the Hindu scriptures call Brahma, Vishnu And Maheswara; as three tiny points of light which rotate at a very high speed in side each flavor of Quark, which releases immense amount of pure energy, while being dissociated.
The energy released by fusion and fission reactions are just the tiniest fractions of these creative energies, which reside as macrocosmic energy points inside a black hole at the singularity. The super novas and quarks are manifesting the same three points of energy, which shines in this material world of three dimensional nature through the singularities present in the subquark microblackholes and the quasar macroblackhole singularities.