The Nag Hammadi Library
“Seeing that everybody, gods of the world and mankind, says that
nothing existed prior to chaos, I, in distinction to them, shall
demonstrate that they are all mistaken, because they are not acquainted
with the origin of chaos, nor with its root. Here is the demonstration.
How well it
suits all men, on the subject of chaos, to say that it is a kind of
darkness! But in fact it comes from a shadow, which has been called by
the name ‘darkness’. And the shadow comes from a product that has
existed since the beginning. It is, moreover, clear that it existed
before chaos came into being, and that the latter is posterior to the
first product. Let us therefore concern ourselves with the facts of the
matter; and furthermore, with the first product, from which chaos was
projected. And in this way the truth will be clearly demonstrated.
After the natural structure of the
immortal beings had completely developed out of the infinite, a likeness
then emanated from Pistis (Faith); it is called Sophia (Wisdom). It
exercised volition and became a product resembling the primeval light.
And immediately her will manifested itself as a likeness of heaven,
having an unimaginable magnitude; it was between the immortal beings and
those things that came into being after them, like […]: she (Sophia)
functioned as a veil dividing mankind from the things above.
Now the eternal realm (aeon) of truth
has no shadow outside it, for the limitless light is everywhere within
it. But its exterior is shadow, which has been called by the name
‘darkness’. From it, there appeared a force, presiding over the
darkness. And the forces that came into being subsequent to them called
the shadow ‘the limitless chaos’. From it, every kind of divinity
sprouted up […] together with the entire place, so that also, shadow
is posterior to the first product. It was <in> the abyss that it
(shadow) appeared, deriving from the aforementioned Pistis.
Then shadow perceived there was
something mightier than it, and felt envy; and when it had become
pregnant of its own accord, suddenly it engendered jealousy. Since that
day, the principle of jealousy amongst all the eternal realms and their
worlds has been apparent. Now as for that jealousy, it was found to be
an abortion without any spirit in it. Like a shadow, it came into
existence in a vast watery substance. Then the bile that had come into
being out of the shadow was thrown into a part of chaos. Since that day,
a watery substance has been apparent. And what sank within it flowed
away, being visible in chaos: as with a woman giving birth to a child –
all her superfluities flow out; just so, matter came into being out of
shadow, and was projected apart. And it did not depart from chaos;
rather, matter was in chaos, being in a part of it.
And when these things had come to pass,
then Pistis came and appeared over the matter of chaos, which had been
expelled like an aborted fetus – since there was no spirit in it. For
all of it (chaos) was limitless darkness and bottomless water. Now when
Pistis saw what had resulted from her defect, she became disturbed. And
the disturbance appeared, as a fearful product; it rushed to her in the
chaos. She turned to it and blew into its face in the abyss, which is
below all the heavens.
And when Pistis Sophia desired to cause
the thing that had no spirit to be formed into a likeness and to rule
over matter and over all her forces, there appeared for the first time a
ruler, out of the waters, lion-like in appearance, androgynous, having
great authority within him, and ignorant of whence he had come into
being. Now when Pistis Sophia saw him moving about in the depth of the
waters, she said to him, “Child, pass through to here,” whose equivalent
is ‘yalda baoth‘.
Since that day, there appeared the
principle of verbal expression, which reached the gods and the angels
and mankind. And what came into being as a result of verbal expression,
the gods and the angels and mankind finished. Now as for the ruler
Yaltabaoth, he is ignorant of the force of Pistis: he did not see her
face, rather he saw in the water the likeness that spoke with him. And
because of that voice, he called himself ‘Yaldabaoth’. But ‘Ariael’ is
what the perfect call him, for he was like a lion. Now when he had come
to have authority over matter, Pistis Sophia withdrew up to her light.
When the ruler saw his magnitude – and
it was only himself that he saw: he saw nothing else, except for water
and darkness – then he supposed that it was he alone who existed. His
[…] was completed by verbal expression: it appeared as a spirit moving
to and fro upon the waters. And when that spirit appeared, the ruler set
apart the watery substance. And what was dry was divided into another
place. And from matter, he made for himself an abode, and he called it
‘heaven’. And from matter, the ruler made a footstool, and he called it
Next, the ruler had a thought –
consistent with his nature – and by means of verbal expression he
created an androgyne. He opened his mouth and cooed to him. When his
eyes had been opened, he looked at his father, and he said to him, “Eee!”
Then his father called him Eee-a-o (‘Yao’). Next he created the second
son. He cooed to him. And he opened his eyes and said to his father,
“Eh!” His father called him ‘Eloai’. Next, he created the third son. He
cooed to him. And he opened his eyes and said to his father, “Asss!” His
father called him ‘Astaphaios’. These are the three sons of their
Seven appeared in chaos, androgynous.
They have their masculine names and their feminine names. The feminine
name is Pronoia (Forethought) Sambathas, which is ‘week’.
And his son is called Yao: his feminine name is Lordship.
Sabaoth: his feminine name is Deity.
Adonaios: his feminine name is Kingship.
Elaios: his feminine name is Jealousy.
Oraios: his feminine name is Wealth.
And Astaphaios: his feminine name is Sophia (Wisdom).
These are the seven forces of the seven heavens of chaos. And they were
born androgynous, consistent with the immortal pattern that existed
before them, according to the wish of Pistis: so that the likeness of
what had existed since the beginning might reign to the end. You will
find the effect of these names and the force of the male entities in the
Archangelic (Book) of the Prophet Moses, and the names of the
female entities in the first Book of Noraia.
Now the prime parent Yaldabaoth, since
he possessed great authorities, created heavens for each of his
offspring through verbal expression – created them beautiful, as
dwelling places – and in each heaven he created great glories, seven
times excellent. Thrones and mansions and temples, and also chariots and
virgin spirits up to an invisible one and their glories, each one has
these in his heaven; mighty armies of gods and lords and angels and
archangels – countless myriads – so that they might serve. The account
of these matters you will find in a precise manner in the first
Account of Oraia.
And they were completed from this heaven
to as far up as the sixth heaven, namely that of Sophia. The heaven and
his earth were destroyed by the troublemaker that was below them all.
And the six heavens shook violently; for the forces of chaos knew who it
was that had destroyed the heaven that was below them. And when Pistis
knew about the breakage resulting from the disturbance, she sent forth
her breath and bound him and cast him down into Tartaros. Since that
day, the heaven, along with its earth, has consolidated itself through
Sophia the daughter of Yaldabaoth, she who is below them all.
Now when the heavens had consolidated
themselves along with their forces and all their administration, the
prime parent became insolent. And he was honored by all the army of
angels. And all the gods and their angels gave blessing and honor to
him. And for his part, he was delighted and continually boasted, saying
to them, “I have no need of anyone.” He said, “It is I who am God, and
there is no other one that exists apart from me.” And when he said this,
he sinned against all the immortal beings who give answer. And they laid
it to his charge.
Then when Pistis saw the impiety of the
chief ruler, she was filled with anger. She was invisible. She said,
“You are mistaken, Samael,” (that is, “blind god”). “There is an
immortal man of light who has been in existence before you, and who will
appear among your modelled forms; he will trample you to scorn, just as
potter’s clay is pounded. And you will descend to your mother, the
abyss, along with those that belong to you. For at the consummation of
your (pl.) works, the entire defect that has become visible out of the
truth will be abolished, and it will cease to be, and will be like what
has never been.” Saying this, Pistis revealed her likeness of her
greatness in the waters. And so doing, she withdrew up to her light.
Now when Sabaoth, the son of Yaldabaoth,
heard the voice of Pistis, he sang praises to her, and he condemned the
father […] at the word of Pistis; and he praised her because she had
instructed them about the immortal man and his light. Then Pistis Sophia
stretched out her finger and poured upon him some light from her light,
to be a condemnation of his father. Then when Sabaoth was illumined, he
received great authority against all the forces of chaos. Since that day
he has been called “Lord of the Forces”.
He hated his father, the darkness, and
his mother, the abyss, and loathed his sister, the thought of the prime
parent, which moved to and fro upon the waters. And because of his
light, all the authorities of chaos were jealous of him. And when they
had become disturbed, they made a great war in the seven heavens. Then
when Pistis Sophia had seen the war, she dispatched seven archangels to
Sabaoth from her light. They snatched him up to the seventh heaven. They
stood before him as attendants. Furthermore, she sent him three more
archangels, and established the kingdom for him over everyone, so that
he might dwell above the twelve gods of chaos.
Now when Sabaoth had taken up the place
of repose in return for his repentance, Pistis also gave him her
daughter Zoe (Life), together with great authority, so that she might
instruct him about all things that exist in the eighth heaven. And as he
had authority, he made himself first of all a mansion. It is huge,
magnificent, seven times as great as all those that exist in the seven
And before his mansion he created a
throne, which was huge and was upon a four-faced chariot called “Cherubin”.
Now the Cherubin has eight shapes per each of the four corners, lion
forms and calf forms and human forms and eagle forms, so that all the
forms amount to sixty-four forms – and seven archangels that stand
before it; he is the eighth, and has authority. All the forms amount to
seventy-two. Furthermore, from this chariot the seventy-two gods took
shape; they took shape so that they might rule over the seventy-two
languages of the peoples. And by that throne he created other,
serpent-like angels, called “Seraphin”, which praise him at all times.
Thereafter he created a congregation of
angels, thousands and myriads, numberless, which resembled the
congregation in the eighth heaven; and a firstborn called
Israel – which is, “the man that sees
God”; and another being, called Jesus Christ, who resembles the savior
above in the eighth heaven, and who sits at his right upon a revered
throne. And at his left, there sits the virgin of the holy spirit, upon
a throne and glorifying him. And the seven virgins stand before her,
[…] possessing thirty harps, and psalteries and trumpets, glorifying
him. And all the armies of the angels glorify him, and they bless him.
Now where he sits is upon a throne of light <within a> great cloud that
covers him. And there was no one with him in the cloud except Sophia
<the daughter of> Pistis, instructing him about all the things that
exist in the eighth heaven, so that the likenesses of those things might
be created, in order that his reign might endure until the consummation
of the heavens of chaos and their forces.
Now Pistis Sophia set him apart from the
darkness and summoned him to her right, and the prime parent she put at
her left. Since that day, right has been called justice, and left called
wickedness. Now because of this, they all received a realm in the
congregation of justice and wickedness, […] stand […] upon a
creature […] all.
Thus, when the prime parent of chaos saw
his son Sabaoth and the glory that he was in, and perceived that he was
greatest of all the authorities of chaos, he envied him. And having
become wrathful, he engendered Death out of his death: and he (viz.,
Death) was established over the sixth heaven, <for> Sabaoth had been
snatched up from there. And thus the number of the six authorities of
chaos was achieved. Then Death, being androgynous, mingled with his
(own) nature and begot seven androgynous offspring. These are the names
of the male ones: Jealousy, Wrath, Tears, Sighing, Suffering,
Lamentation, Bitter Weeping. And these are the names of the female ones:
Wrath, Pain, Lust, Sighing, Curse, Bitterness, Quarrelsomeness. They had
intercourse with one another, and each one begot seven, so that they
amount to forty-nine androgynous demons. Their names and their effects
you will find in the Book of Solomon.
And in the presence of these, Zoe, who
was with Sabaoth, created seven good androgynous forces. These are the
names of the male ones: the Unenvious, the Blessed, the Joyful, the
True, the Unbegrudging, the Beloved, the Trustworthy. Also, as regards
the female ones, these are their names: Peace, Gladness, Rejoicing,
Blessedness, Truth, Love, Faith (Pistis). And from these are many good
and innocent spirits. Their influences and their effects you will find
in the Configurations of the Fate of Heaven That Is Beneath the
And having seen the likeness of Pistis
in the waters, the prime parent grieved very much, especially when he
heard her voice, like the first voice that had called to him out of the
waters. And when he knew that it was she who had given a name to him, he
sighed. He was ashamed on account of his transgression. And when he had
come to know in truth that an immortal man of light had been existing
before him, he was greatly disturbed; for he had previously said to all
the gods and their angels, “It is I who am god. No other one exists
apart from me.” For he had been afraid they might know that another had
been in existence before him, and might condemn him. But he, being
devoid of understanding, scoffed at the condemnation and acted
recklessly. He said, “If anything has existed before me, let it appear,
so that we may see its light.”
And immediately, behold! Light came out
of the eighth heaven above and passed through all of the heavens of the
earth. When the prime parent saw that the light was beautiful as it
radiated, he was amazed. And he was greatly ashamed. As that light
appeared, a human likeness appeared within it, very wonderful. And no
one saw it except for the prime parent and Pronoia, who was with him.
Yet its light appeared to all the forces of the heavens. Because of this
they were all troubled by it.
Then when Pronoia saw that emissary, she
became enamored of him. But he hated her because she was on the
darkness. But she desired to embrace him, and she was not able to. When
she was unable to assuage her love, she poured out her light upon the
earth. Since that day, that emissary has been called “Adam of Light,”
whose rendering is “the luminous man of blood,” and the earth spread
over him, holy Adaman, whose rendering is “the Holy Land of Adamantine.”
Since that day, all the authorities have honored the blood of the
virgin. And the earth was purified on account of the blood of the
virgin. But most of all, the water was purified through the likeness of
Pistis Sophia, who had appeared to the prime parent in the waters.
Justly, then, it has been said: “through the waters.” The holy water,
since it vivifies the all, purifies it.
Out of that first blood Eros appeared,
being androgynous. His masculinity is Himireris, being fire from the
light. His femininity that is with him – a soul of blood – is from the
stuff of Pronoia. He is very lovely in his beauty, having a charm beyond
all the creatures of chaos. Then all the gods and their angels, when
they beheld Eros, became enamored of him. And appearing in all of them,
he set them afire: just as from a single lamp many lamps are lit, and
one and the same light is there, but the lamp is not diminished. And in
this way, Eros became dispersed in all the created beings of chaos, and
was not diminished. Just as from the midpoint of light and darkness Eros
appeared and at the midpoint of the angels and mankind the sexual union
of Eros was consummated, so out of the earth the primal pleasure
blossomed. The woman followed earth. And marriage followed woman. Birth
followed marriage. Dissolution followed birth.
After that Eros, the grapevine sprouted
up out of that blood, which had been shed over the earth. Because of
this, those who drink of it conceive the desire of sexual union. After
the grapevine, a fig tree and a pomegranate tree sprouted up from the
earth, together with the rest of the trees, all species, having with
them their seed from the seed of the authorities and their angels.
Then Justice created Paradise, being
beautiful and being outside the orbit of the moon and the orbit of the
sun in the Land of Wantonness, in the East in the midst of the stones.
And desire is in the midst of the beautiful, appetizing trees. And the
tree of eternal life is as it appeared by God’s will, to the north of
Paradise, so that it might make eternal the souls of the pure, who shall
come forth from the modelled forms of poverty at the consummation of the
age. Now the color of the tree of life is like the sun. And its branches
are beautiful. Its leaves are like those of the cypress. Its fruit is
like a bunch of grapes when it is white. Its height goes as far as
heaven. And next to it (is) the tree of knowledge (gnosis),
having the strength of God. Its glory is like the moon when fully
radiant. And its branches are beautiful. Its leaves are like fig leaves.
Its fruit is like a good appetizing date. And this tree is to the north
of Paradise, so that it might arouse the souls from the torpor of the
demons, in order that they might approach the tree of life and eat of
its fruit, and so condemn the authorities and their angels. The effect
of this tree is described in the Sacred Book, to wit: “It is you
who are the tree of knowledge, which is in Paradise, from which the
first man ate and which opened his mind; and he loved his female
counterpart and condemned the other, alien likenesses and loathed them.”
Now after it, the olive tree sprouted
up, which was to purify the kings and the high priests of righteousness,
who were to appear in the last days, since the olive tree appeared out
of the light of the first Adam for the sake of the unguent that they
were to receive.
And the first soul (psyche) loved
Eros, who was with her, and poured her blood upon him and upon the
earth. And out of that blood the rose first sprouted up, out of the
earth, out of the thorn bush, to be a source of joy for the light that
was to appear in the bush. Moreover, after this the beautiful,
good-smelling flowers sprouted up from the earth, different kinds, from
every single virgin of the daughters of Pronoia. And they, when they had
become enamored of Eros, poured out their blood upon him and upon the
earth. After these, every plant sprouted up from the earth, different
kinds, containing the seed of the authorities and their angels. After
these, the authorities created out of the waters all species of beast,
and the reptiles and birds – different kinds – containing the seed of
the authorities and their angels.
But before all these, when he had
appeared on the first the first day, he remained upon the earth,
something like two days, and left the lower Pronoia in heaven, and
ascended towards his light. And immediately darkness covered all the
universe. Now when she wished, the Sophia who was in the lower heaven
received authority from Pistis, and fashioned great luminous bodies and
all the stars. And she put them in the sky to shine upon the earth and
to render temporal signs and seasons and years and months and days and
nights and moments and so forth. And in this way the entire region upon
the sky was adorned.
Now when Adam of Light conceived the
wish to enter his light – i.e., the eighth heaven – he was unable to do
so because of the poverty that had mingled with his light. Then he
created for himself a vast eternal realm. And within that eternal realm
he created six eternal realms and their adornments, six in number, that
were seven times better than the heavens of chaos and their adornments.
Now all these eternal realms and their adornments exist within the
infinity that is between the eighth heaven and the chaos below it, being
counted with the universe that belongs to poverty. If you want to know
the arrangement of these, you will find it written in the Seventh
Universe of the Prophet Hieralias.
And before Adam of Light had withdrawn
in the chaos, the authorities saw him and laughed at the prime parent
because he had lied when he said, “It is I who am God. No one exists
before me.” When they came to him, they said, “Is this not the god who
ruined our work?” He answered and said, “Yes. If you do not want him to
be able to ruin our work, come let us create a man out of earth,
according to the image of our body and according to the likeness of this
being, to serve us; so that when he sees his likeness, he might become
enamored of it. No longer will he ruin our work; rather,we shall make
those who are born out of the light our servants for all the duration of
this eternal realm.” Now all of this came to pass according to the
forethought of Pistis, in order that man should appear after his
likeness, and should condemn them because of their modelled form. And
their modelled form became an enclosure of the light.
Then the authorities received the
knowledge (gnosis) necessary to create man. Sophia Zoe – she who
is with Sabaoth – had anticipated them. And she laughed at their
decision. For they are blind: against their own interests they
ignorantly created him. And they do not realize what they are about to
do. The reason she anticipated them and made her own man first, was in
order that he might instruct their modelled form how to despise them,
and thus to escape from them.
Now the production of the instructor
came about as follows. When Sophia let fall a droplet of light, it
flowed onto the water, and immediately a human being appeared, being
androgynous. That droplet she molded first as a female body. Afterwards,
using the body she molded it in the likeness of the mother, which had
appeared. And he finished it in twelve months. An androgynous human
being was produced, whom the Greeks call Hermaphrodites; and whose
mother the Hebrews call Eve of Life (Zoe), namely, the female instructor
of life. Her offspring is the creature that is lord. Afterwards, the
authorities called it “Beast”, so that it might lead astray their
modelled creatures. The interpretation of “the beast” is “the
instructor”. For it was found to be the wisest of all beings.
Now, Eve is the first virgin, the one
who without a husband bore her first offspring. It is she who served as
her own midwife. For this reason she is held to have said:
It is I who
am the part of my mother; and it is I who am the mother.
It is I who
am the wife; it is I who am the virgin.
It is I who
am pregnant; it is I who am the midwife.
It is I who
am the one that comforts pains of travail.
It is my
husband who bore me; and it is I who am his mother.
And it is he
who is my father and my lord.
It is he who
is my force; What he desires, he says with reason.
I am in the
process of becoming; yet I have borne a man as lord.
Now these through the will <…> The
souls that were going to enter the modelled forms of the authorities
were manifested to Sabaoth and his Christ. And regarding these, the holy
voice said, “Multiply and improve! Be lord over all creatures.” And it
is they who were taken captive, according to their destinies, by the
prime parent. And thus they were shut into the prisons of the modelled
forms until the consummation of the age.
And at that time, the prime parent then
rendered an opinion concerning man to those who were with him. Then each
of them cast his sperm into the midst of the navel of the earth. Since
that day, the seven rulers have fashioned man with his body resembling
their body, but his likeness resembling the man that had appeared to
them. His modelling took place by parts, one at a time. And their leader
fashioned the brain and the nervous system. Afterwards, he appeared as
prior to him. He became a soul-endowed man. And he was called Adam, that
is, “father”, according to the name of the one that existed before him.
And when they had finished Adam, he
abandoned him as an inanimate vessel, since he had taken form like an
abortion, in that no spirit was in him. Regarding this thing, when the
chief ruler remembered the saying of Pistis, he was afraid lest the true
man enter his modelled form and become its lord. For this reason he left
his modelled form forty days without soul, and he withdrew and abandoned
it. Now on the fortieth day, Sophia Zoe sent her breath into Adam, who
had no soul. He began to move upon the ground. And he could not stand
Then, when the seven rulers came, they
saw him and were greatly disturbed. They went up to him and seized him.
And he (viz., the chief ruler) said to the breath within him, “Who are
you? And whence did you come hither?” It answered and said, “I have come
from the force of the man for the destruction of your work.” When they
heard, they glorified him, since he gave them respite from the fear and
the anxiety in which they found themselves. Then they called that day
“Rest”, in as much as they had rested from toil. And when they saw that
Adam could stand up, they were glad, and they took him and put him in
Paradise. And they withdrew up to their heavens.
After the day of rest, Sophia sent her
daughter Zoe, being called Eve, as an instructor, in order that she
might make Adam, who had no soul, arise, so that those whom he should
engender might become containers of light. When Eve saw her male
counterpart prostrate, she had pity upon him, and she said, “Adam!
Become alive! Arise upon the earth!” Immediately her word became
accomplished fact. For Adam, having arisen, suddenly opened his eyes.
When he saw her, he said, “You shall be called ‘Mother of the Living’.
For it is you who have given me life.”
Then the authorities were informed that
their modelled form was alive and had arisen, and they were greatly
troubled. They sent seven archangels to see what had happened. They came
to Adam. When they saw Eve talking to him, they said to one another,
“What sort of thing is this luminous woman? For she resembles that
likeness which appeared to us in the light. Now come, let us lay hold of
her and cast her seed into her, so that when she becomes soiled she may
not be able to ascend into her light. Rather, those whom she bears will
be under our charge. But let us not tell Adam, for he is not one of us.
Rather let us bring a deep sleep over him. And let us instruct him in
his sleep to the effect that she came from his rib, in order that his
wife may obey, and he may be lord over her.”
Then Eve, being a force, laughed at
their decision. She put mist into their eyes and secretly left her
likeness with Adam. She entered the tree of knowledge and remained
there. And they pursued her, and she revealed to them that she had gone
into the tree and become a tree. Then, entering a great state of fear,
the blind creatures fled.
Afterwards, when they had recovered from
the daze, they came to Adam; and seeing the likeness of this woman with
him, they were greatly disturbed, thinking it was she that was the true
Eve. And they acted rashly; they came up to her and seized her and cast
their seed upon her. They did so wickedly, defiling not only in natural
ways but also in foul ways, defiling first the seal of her voice – that
had spoken with them, saying, “What is it that exists before you?” –
intending to defile those who might say at the consummation (of the age)
that they had been born of the true man through verbal expression. And
they erred, not knowing that it was their own body that they had
defiled: it was the likeness that the authorities and their angels
defiled in every way.
First she was pregnant with Abel, by the
first ruler. And it was by the seven authorities and their angels that
she bore the other offspring. And all this came to pass according to the
forethought of the prime parent, so that the first mother might bear
within her every seed, being mixed and being fitted to the fate of the
universe and its configurations, and to Justice. A prearranged plan came
into effect regarding Eve, so that the modelled forms of the authorities
might become enclosures of the light, whereupon it would condemn them
through their modelled forms.
Now the first Adam, (Adam) of Light, is
spirit-endowed and appeared on the first day. The second Adam is
soul-endowed and appeared on the sixth day, which is called Aphrodite.
The third Adam is a creature of the earth, that is, the man of the law,
and he appeared on the eighth day […] the tranquility of poverty,
which is called “The Day of the Sun” (Sunday). And the progeny of the
earthly Adam became numerous and was completed, and produced within
itself every kind of scientific information of the soul-endowed Adam.
But all were in ignorance.
Next, let me say that once the rulers
had seen him and the female creature who was with him erring ignorantly
like beasts, they were very glad. When they learned that the immortal
man was not going to neglect them, rather that they would even have to
fear the female creature that had turned into a tree, they were
disturbed, and said, “Perhaps this is the true man – this being who has
brought a fog upon us and has taught us that she who was soiled is like
him – and so we shall be conquered!”
Then the seven of them together laid
plans. They came up to Adam and Eve timidly: they said to him, “The
fruit of all the trees created for you in Paradise shall be eaten; but
as for the tree of knowledge, control yourselves and do not eat from it.
If you eat, you will die.” Having imparted great fear to them, they
withdrew up to their authorities.
Then came the wisest of all creatures,
who was called Beast. And when he saw the likeness of their mother Eve
he said to her, “What did God say to you? Was it ‘Do not eat from the
tree of knowledge’?” She said, “He said not only, ‘Do not eat from it’,
but, ‘Do not touch it, lest you die.'” He said to her, “Do not be
afraid. In death you shall not die. For he knows that when you eat from
it, your intellect will become sober and you will come to be like gods,
recognizing the difference that obtains between evil men and good ones.
Indeed, it was in jealousy that he said this to you, so that you would
not eat from it.”
Now Eve had confidence in the words of
the instructor. She gazed at the tree and saw that it was beautiful and
appetizing, and liked it; she took some of its fruit and ate it; and she
gave some also to her husband, and he too ate it. Then their intellect
became open. For when they had eaten, the light of knowledge had shone
upon them. When they clothed themselves with shame, they knew that they
were naked of knowledge. When they became sober, they saw that they were
naked and became enamored of one another. When they saw that the ones
who had modelled them had the form of beasts, they loathed them: they
were very aware.
Then when the rulers knew that they had
broken their commandments, they entered Paradise and came to Adam and
Eve with earthquake and great threatening, to see the effect of the aid.
Then Adam and Eve trembled greatly and hid under the trees in Paradise.
Then the rulers did not know where they were and said, “Adam, where are
you?” He said, “I am here, for through fear of you I hid, being
ashamed.” And they said to him ignorantly, “Who told you about the shame
with which you clothed yourself? – unless you have eaten from that
tree!” He said, “The woman whom you gave me – it is she that gave to me
and I ate.” Then they said to the latter, “What is this that you have
done?” She answered and said, “It is the instructor who urged me on, and
Then the rulers came up to the
instructor. Their eyes became misty because of him, and they could not
do anything to him. They cursed him, since they were powerless.
Afterwards, they came up to the woman and cursed her and her offspring.
After the woman, they cursed Adam, and the land because of him, and the
crops; and all things they had created, they cursed. They have no
blessing. Good cannot result from evil.
From that day, the authorities knew that
truly there was something mightier than they: they recognized only that
their commandments had not been kept. Great jealousy was brought into
the world solely because of the immortal man. Now when the rulers saw
that their Adam had entered into an alien state of knowledge, they
desired to test him, and they gathered together all the domestic animals
and the wild beasts of the earth and the birds of heaven and brought
them to Adam to see what he would call them. When he saw them, he gave
names to their creatures.
They became troubled because Adam had
recovered from all the trials. They assembled and laid plans, and they
said, “Behold Adam! He has come to be like one of us, so that he knows
the difference between the light and the darkness. Now perhaps he will
be deceived, as in the case of the Tree of Knowledge, and also will come
to the Tree of Life and eat from it, and become immortal, and become
lord, and despise us and disdain us and all our glory! Then he will
denounce us along with our universe. Come, let us expel him from
Paradise, down to the land from which he was taken, so that henceforth
he might not be able to recognize anything better than we can.” And so
they expelled Adam from Paradise, along with his wife. And this deed
that they had done was not enough for them. Rather, they were afraid.
They went in to the Tree of Life and surrounded it with great fearful
things, fiery living creatures called “Cheroubin”, and they put a
flaming sword in their midst, fearfully twirling at all times, so that
no earthly being might ever enter that place.
Thereupon, since the rulers were envious
of Adam they wanted to diminish their (viz., Adam’s and Eve’s) lifespans.
They could not (, however,) because of fate, which had been fixed since
the beginning. For to each had been allotted a lifespan of 1,000 years,
according to the course of the luminous bodies. But although the rulers
could not do this, each of the evildoers took away ten years. And all
this lifespan (which remained) amounted to 930 years: and these are in
pain and weakness and evil distraction. And so life has turned out to
be, from that day until the consummation of the age.
Thus when Sophia Zoe saw that the rulers
of the darkness had laid a curse upon her counterparts, she was
indignant. And coming out of the first heaven with full power, she
chased those rulers out of their heavens, and cast them down into the
sinful world, so that there they should dwell, in the form of evil
spirits (demons) upon the earth.
[…], so that in their world it might
pass the thousand years in Paradise – a soul-endowed living creature
called “phoenix”. It kills itself and brings itself to life as a witness
to the judgment against them, for they did wrong to Adam and his
generation, unto the consummation of the age. There are […] three men,
and also his posterities, unto the consummation of the world: the
spirit-endowed of eternity, and the soul-endowed, and the earthly.
Likewise, the three phoenixes <in> Paradise – the first is immortal; the
second lives 1,000 years; as for the third, it is written in the
Sacred Book that it is consumed. So, too, there are three baptisms –
the first is the spiritual, the second is by fire, the third is by
water. Just as the phoenix appears as a witness concerning the angels,
so the case of the water hydri in Egypt, which has been a witness to
those going down into the baptism of a true man. The two bulls in Egypt
possess a mystery, the sun and the moon, being a witness to Sabaoth:
namely, that over them Sophia received the universe; from the day that
she made the sun and the moon, she put a seal upon her heaven, unto
And the worm that has been born out of
the phoenix is a human being as well. It is written (Ps 91:13 LXX)
concerning it, “the just man will blossom like a phoenix”. And the
phoenix first appears in a living state, and dies, and rises again,
being a sign of what has become apparent at the consummation of the age.
It was only in Egypt that these great signs appeared – nowhere else – as
an indication that it is like God’s Paradise.
Let us return to the aforementioned
rulers, so that we may offer some explanation of them. Now, when the
seven rulers were cast down from their heavens onto the earth, they made
for themselves angels, numerous, demonic, to serve them. And the latter
instructed mankind in many kinds of error and magic and potions and
worship of idols and spilling of blood and altars and temples and
sacrifices and libations to all the spirits of the earth, having their
coworker fate, who came into existence by the concord between the gods
of injustice and justice.
thus when the world had come into being, it distractedly erred at all
times. For all men upon earth worshiped the spirits (demons) from the
creation to the consummation – both the angels of righteousness and the
men of unrighteousness. Thus did the world come to exist in distraction,
in ignorance, and in a stupor. They all erred, until the appearance of
the true man.
Let this suffice so far as the matter
goes. Now we shall proceed to consideration of our world, so that we may
accurately finish the description of its structure and management. Then
it will become obvious how belief in the unseen realm, which has been
apparent from creation down to the consummation of the age, was
come, therefore, to the main points regarding the immortal man: I shall
speak of all the beings that belong to him, explaining how they happen
to be here.
When a multitude of human beings had
come into existence, through the parentage of the Adam who had been
fashioned, and out of matter, and when the world had already become
full, the rulers were master over it – that is, they kept it restrained
by ignorance. For what reason? For the following: since the immortal
father knows that a deficiency of truth came into being amongst the
eternal realms and their universe, when he wished to bring to naught the
rulers of perdition through the creatures they had modelled, he sent
your likenesses down into the world of perdition, namely, the blessed
little innocent spirits. They are not alien to knowledge. For all
knowledge is vested in one angel who appeared before them; he is not
without power in the company of the father. And <he> gave them
knowledge. Whenever they appear in the world of perdition, immediately
and first of all they reveal the pattern of imperishability as a
condemnation of the rulers and their forces. Thus when the blessed
beings appeared in forms modelled by authorities, they were envied. And
out of envy the authorities mixed their seed with them, in hopes of
polluting them. They could not. Then when the blessed beings appeared in
luminous form, they appeared in various ways. And each one of them,
starting out in his land, revealed his (kind of) knowledge to the
visible church constituted of the modelled forms of perdition. It (viz.,
the church) was found to contain all kinds of seed, because of the seed
of the authorities that had mixed with it.
Then the Savior created […] of them
all – and the spirits of these are manifestly superior, being blessed
and varying in election – and also (he created) many other beings, which
have no king and are superior to everyone that was before them.
Consequently, four races exist. There are three that belong to the kings
of the eighth heaven. But the fourth race is kingless and perfect, being
the highest of all. For these shall enter the holy place of their
father. And they will gain rest in repose and eternal, unspeakable glory
and unending joy. Moreover, they are kings within the mortal domain, in
that they are immortal. They will condemn the gods of chaos and their
Now the Word that is superior to all
beings was sent for this purpose alone: that he might proclaim the
unknown. He said, “There is nothing hidden that is not apparent, and
what has not been recognized will be recognized.” And these were sent to
make known what is hidden, and the seven authorities of chaos and their
impiety. And thus they were condemned to death.
So when all the perfect appeared in the
forms modelled by the rulers, and when they revealed the incomparable
truth, they put to shame all the wisdom of the gods. And their fate was
found to be a condemnation. And their force dried up. Their lordship was
dissolved. Their forethought became emptiness, along with their glory.
Before the consummation of the age, the
whole place will shake with great thundering. Then the rulers will be
sad, […] their death. The angels will mourn for their mankind, and the
demons will weep over their seasons, and their mankind will wail and
scream at their death. Then the age will begin, and they will be
disturbed. Their kings will be intoxicated with the fiery sword, and
they will wage war against one another, so that the earth is intoxicated
with bloodshed. And the seas will be disturbed by those wars. Then the
sun will become dark, and the moon will cause its light to cease. The
stars of the sky will cancel their circuits. And a great clap of thunder
will come out of a great force that is above all the forces of chaos,
where the firmament of the woman is situated. Having created the first
product, she will put away the wise fire of intelligence and clothe
herself with witless wrath. Then she will pursue the gods of chaos, whom
she created along with the prime parent. She will cast them down into
the abyss. They will be obliterated because of their wickedness. For
they will come to be like volcanoes and consume one another until they
perish at the hand of the prime parent. When he has destroyed them, he
will turn against himself and destroy himself until he ceases to exist.
And their heavens will fall one upon the
next and their forces will be consumed by fire. Their eternal realms,
too, will be overturned. And his heaven will fall and break in two. His
[…] will fall down upon the […] support them; they will fall into
the abyss, and the abyss will be overturned.
The light will […] the darkness and
obliterate it: it will be like something that has never been. And the
product to which the darkness had been posterior will dissolve. And the
deficiency will be plucked out by the root (and thrown) down into the
darkness. And the light will withdraw up to its root. And the glory of
the unbegotten will appear. And it will fill all the eternal realm.
When the prophecy and the account of
those that are king becomes known and is fulfilled by those who are
called perfect, those who – in contrast – have not become perfect in the
unbegotten father will receive their glory in their realms and in the
kingdoms of the immortals: but they will never enter the kingless realm.
For everyone must go to the place from which he has come. Indeed, by his
acts and his knowledge, each person will make his (own) nature known.
Translated by Hans-Gebhard Bethge and