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meditation

 




Brihadaranyaka
Upanishad

 

 


– Continued

 

 

Part
Four

 

Chapter I

 

 

Partial Definitions of Brahman



1. Om. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, was seated to give audience when
Yajnavalkya arrived. The Emperor said to him: “Yajnavalkya, for what
purpose have you come here? With a desire for cattle, or to hear some
subtle questions asked?”

“For both, Your Majesty,” said he.

2. Yajnavalkya said: “Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may
have told you.”

“Jitvan, the son of Silina, told me that the organ of speech (fire)
is Brahman.”

“As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother,
father and teacher should say, so did the son of Silina say that the organ
of speech is Brahman; for what can be attained by a person who cannot
speak? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?”

“No, he did not.”

“This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.”

“Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya.”

“The physical organ of speech is its abode and the akasa is its
support. It should be mediated upon as intelligence.”

“What is intelligence, O Yajnavalkya?”

“It is the organ of speech, Your Majesty,” said Yajnavalkya.
“Through the organ of speech alone, O Emperor, are known the
Rig-Veda, the Yagur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the Atharvangirasa, history,
ancient lore, the arts, the Upanishads, verses, aphorisms, explanations,
commentaries, the results of sacrifices, the result of offering oblations
in the fire, the results of giving food and drink, this world, the next
world and all beings.

“The organ of speech, Your Majesty, is the Supreme Brahman. The organ
of speech never deserts him who, knowing this, meditates upon it; all
beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.”

“I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an
elephant,” said Emperor Janaka.

Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one should
not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him.”

3. Yajnavalkya said: “Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may
have told you.”

“Udanka, the son of Sulba, told me that the vital breath (prana) is
Brahman.”

“As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother,
father and teacher should say, so did the son of Sulba say that the vital
breath is Brahman; for what can be attained by a person who does not live?
But did he tell you about its abode and support?”

“No, he did not.”

“This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.”

“Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya.”

“The vital breath is its abode and the akasa is its support. It
should be meditated upon as dear.”

“What is that dearness, O Yajnavalkya?”

“It is the vital breath, Your Majesty,” said Yajnavalkya.
“For the sake of that vital breath (life), O Emperor, one performs
sacrifices for him for whom they should not be performed and accepts gifts
from him from whom they should not be accepted; nay, for the sake of the
vital breath, O Emperor, one may go to a quarter where one runs the risk
of losing one’s life.

“The vital breath, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The vital
breath never deserts him who, knowing what has just been said, meditates
upon it; all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the
gods.”

“I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an
elephant,” said Emperor Janaka.

Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one should
not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him.”

4. Yajnavalkya said: “Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may
have told you.

“Barku, the son of Vrishna, told me that the eye is Brahman.”

“As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother,
father and teacher should say, so did the son of Vrishna say that the eye
is Brahman; for what can be attained by a person who cannot see? But did
he tell you about its abode and support?”

“No, he did not.”

“This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.”

“Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya.”

“The eye is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be
meditated upon as truth.”

“What is truth, O Yajnavalkya?”

“It is the eye, Your Majesty,” said Yajnavalkya. “Verily,
Your Majesty, if one asks a person who has seen with his eyes: ‘Have you
seen?’ and he answers: ‘Yes, I have,’ then it is true.

“The eye, Your Majesty, is the Supreme Brahman. The eye never deserts
him who, knowing what has just been said, meditates upon it; all beings
eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.”

“I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an
elephant,” said Emperor Janaka.

Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one should
not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him.”

5. Yajnavalkya said: “Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may
have told you.”

“Gardabhivipita, a descendant of Bharadvaja, told me that the ear is
Brahman.”

“As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother,
father and teacher should say, so did the descendant of Bharadvaja say
that the ear is Brahman; for what can be attained by a person who cannot
hear? But did he tell you about its abode and support?”

“No, he did not.”

“This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.”

“Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya.”

“The ear is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be
meditated upon as infinite.”

“What is infinity, O Yajnavalkya?”

“It is the quarters, Your Majesty,” said Yajnavalkya.
“Verily, Your Majesty, to whatever quarter (direction) one may go,
one never reaches its end. Hence the quarters are infinite. The quarters,
O Emperor, are the ear and the ear, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman.

“The ear never deserts him who, knowing this, meditates upon it; all
beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.”

“I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an
elephant,” said Emperor Janaka.

Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one should
not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him.”

6. Yajnavalkya said: “Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may
have told you.”

“Satyakama, the son of Jabala, told me that the mind is
Brahman.”

“As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother,
father and teacher should say, so did the son of Jaa say that the mind is
Brahman; for what can be attained by a person who has no mind? But did he
tell you about its abode and support?”

“No, he did not.”

“This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.”

“Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya.”

“The mind is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be
meditated upon as bliss.”

“What is bliss, O Yajnavalkya ?”

“It is the mind, Your Majesty,” said Yajnavdkya. “Verily,
Your Majesty, with the mind a man desires and woos a woman; then a son
resembling him is born of her and he is the cause of bliss. The mind, O
Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman.

“The mind never deserts him who, knowing this, meditates upon it; all
beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the gods.”

“I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an
elephant,” said Emperor Janaka.

Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one should
not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him.”

7. Yajnavalkya said: “Let me hear what anyone among your teachers may
have told you.”

“Vidaghdha, the son of Sakala, told me that the heart is
Brahman.”

“As anyone who had the benefit of being taught by a good mother,
father and teacher should say, so did the son of Sakala say that the heart
is Brahman; for what can be attained by a person who is without a heart?
But did he tell you about its abode and support?”

“No, he did not.”

“This Brahman is only one-footed, Your Majesty.”

“Then you tell us, O Yajnavalkya.”

“The heart is its abode and the akasa is its support. It should be
meditated upon as stability.”

“What is stability, O Yajnavalkya?”

“It is the heart,” said Yajnavalkya. “Verily, Your Majesty,
the heart is the abode of all beings and the heart, Your Majesty, is the
support of all beings. The heart, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman.

“The heart never deserts him who, knowing this, meditates upon it;
all beings eagerly approach him; and being a god, he attains the
gods.”

“I give you a thousand cows with a bull as large as an
elephant,” said Emperor Janaka.

Yajnavalkya replied: “My father was of the opinion that one should
not accept gifts from a disciple without fully instructing him.”

Chapter
II

Concerning The Self

1. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, rose from his lounge, humbly approached
Yajnavalkya and said: “Salutation to you, O Yajnavalkya. Please
instruct me.”

Yajnavalkya said: “Your Majesty, as one who wishes to go a long
distance would procure a chariot or a ship, even so you have fully
equipped your mind with so many secret names of Brahman. You are also
honoured and wealthy; you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads.
But do you know where you will go when you are released from this
body?”

“Venerable Sir, I do not know where I shall go.”

“Then I will tell you where you will go.”

“Tell me, venerable Sir.”

2. “The person who is in the right eye is named Indha. Though he is
Indha, people call him by the indirect name Indra; for the gods are fond
of indirect names and hate to be addressed directly.

3. “The person who is in the left eye is his wife, Viraj (matter).
The akasa that lies within the heart is their place of union. Their food
is the lump (pinda) of blood in the heart. Their wrap is the net-like
structure in the heart. The path on which they move from sleep to waking
is the nerve that goes upward from the heart; it is like a hair split into
a thousand parts. In the body there are nerves called hita, which are
placed in the heart. Through these the essence of our food passes as it
moves on. Therefore the subtle body (Taijasa) receives finer food than the
gross body (Vaisvanara).

4. “Of the illumined sage who is identified with Prajna in deep sleep
the east is the eastern vital breath (prana), the south is the southern
vital breath, the west is the western vital breath, the north is the
northern vital breath, the upper direction is the upper vital breath, the
direction below is the nether vital breath and all the directions are all
the vital breaths.

“This self is That which has been described as ‘Not this, not this.’
It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never
decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered, for It never
feels pain and never suffers injury.

“Verily, O Janaka, you have attained That which is free from
fear,” said Yajnavalkya.

“Venerable Yajnavalkya,” said Emperor Janaka, “may that
fearless Brahman be yours too, for you have made known to us the fearless
Brahman. Salutations to you! Here is the Empire of Videha and also myself
at your service.”

Chapter
III

Investigation of the Three States

1. Yajnavalkya called on Janaka, Emperor of Videha. He said to himself:
“I will not say anything.”

But once upon a time Janaka, Emperor of Videha and Yajnavalkya had had a
talk about the Agnihotra sacrifice and Yajnavalkya had offered him a boon.
Janaka had chosen the right to ask him any questions he wished and
Yajnavalkya had granted him the boon.

So it was the Emperor who first questioned him.

2. “Yajnavalkya, what serves as light for a man?”

“The light of the sun, O Emperor,” said Yajnavalkya, “for
with the sun as light he sits, goes out, works and returns.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

3. “When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya, what serves as light for a
man?”

“The moon serves as his light, for with the moon as light he sits,
goes out, works and returns.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

4. “When the sun has set and the moon has set, Yajnavalkya, what
serves as light for a man?”

“Fire serves as his light, for with fire as light he sits, goes out,
works and returns.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

5. “When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya and the moon has set and the
fire has gone out, what serves as light for a man?”

“Speech (sound) serves as his light, for with speech as light he
sits, goes out, works and returns. Therefore, Your Majesty, when one
cannot see even one’s own hand, yet when a sound is uttered, one can go
there.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

6. “When the sun has set, Yajnavalkya and the moon has set and the
fire has gone out and speech has stopped, what serves as light for a
man?”

“The self, indeed, is his light, for with the self as light he sits,
goes out, works and returns.”

7. “Which is the self?”

“This purusha which is identified with the intellect (vijnanamaya)
and is in the midst of the orgams, the self-indulgent light within the
heart (intellect). Assuming the likeness of the intellect, it wansers
between the two worlds; it thinks, as it were and moves, as it were being
indetified with dreasm, it trasncends this waking world, which represents
the forms of death (ignorance and its effects).

8. “That person (the individual self), when he is born, that is to
say, when he assumes a body, is joined with evils and when he dies, that
is to say, leaves the body, he discards those evils.

9. “And there are only two states for that person: the one here in
this world and the other in the next world. The third, the intermediate,
is the dream state. When he is in that intermediate state, he surveys both
states: the one here in this world and the other in the next world. Now,
whatever support he may have for the next world, he provides himself with
that and sees both evils (sufferings) and joys.

“And when he dreams, he takes away a little of the impressions of
this all-embracing world (the waking state), himself makes the body
unconscious and creates a dream body in its place, revealing his own
brightness by his own light-and he dreams. In this state the person
becomes self-illumined.

10. “There are no real chariots in that state, nor animals to be
yoked to them, nor roads there, but he creates the chariots, animals and
roads. There are no pleasures in that state, no joys, no rejoicings, but
he creates the pleasures, joys and rejoicings. There are no pools in that
state, no reservoirs, no rivers, but he creates the pools, reservoirs and
rivers. He indeed is the agent.

11. “Regarding this there are the following verses:

‘The effulgent infinite being (purusha), who travels alone, makes the body
insensible in sleep but himself remains awake and taking with him the
luminous particles of the organs, watches those which lie dormant. Again
he comes to the waking state.

12. ‘The effulgent infinite being (purusha), who is immortal and travels
alone, guards the unclean nest (body) with the help of the vital breath
(prana) and himself moves out of the nest. That immortal entity wanders
wherever he likes.

13. ‘In the dream world, the luminous one attains higher and lower states
and creates many forms-now, as it were, enjoying himself in the company of
women, now laughing, now even beholding frightful sights.

14. ‘Everyone sees his sport but him no one sees.’ They say: ‘Do not wake
him suddenly.’ If he does not find the right organ, the body becomes
difficult to doctor.

15. Yajnavalkya said: “Tha entity (purusha), after enjoying himself
and raoming in the dream state and merely witnessing the results of good
and evil, remians in a state of profound sleep and then hastens back in
the reverse way to his former condition, the dream state. He remains
unaffected by whatever he sees in that dream state, for this infinite
being is unattached.”

Janaka said: “Just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand cows.

Please instruct me further about Liberation itself.

16. “Yajnavalkya said: “That entity (purusha), after enjoying
himself and roaming in the dream state and merely witnessing the results
of good and evil, hastens back in the reverse way to his former condition,
the waking state. He remains unaffected by whatever he sees in that state,
for this infinite being is unattached.”

Janaka said: “Just so, Yajnavalkya. I give you, Sir, a thousand cows.

Please instruct me further about Liberation itself.”

17. Yajnavalkya said: “That entity (purusha), after enjoying himself
and roaming in the waking state and merely witnessing the results of good
and evil, hastens back in the reverse way to its former condition, the
dream state or that of dreamless sleep.

18. “As a large fish swims alternately to both banks of a river-the
east and the west-so does the infinite being move to both these states:
dreaming and waking.

19. “As a hawk or a falcon roaming in the sky becomes tired, folds
its wings and makes for its nest, so does this infinite entity (purusha)
hasten for this state, where, falling asleep, he cherishes no more desires
and dreams no more dreams.

20. “There are ni his body nerves (nadis) called hita, which are fine
as a hair divided into a thousand parts and are filled with white, blue,
brown, green and red fluids. Theyt are the seat of the suble body, which
is the storehouse of impressions. Now, when he feels as if he were being
killed or overpowered, or being chased by an elephant, or falling into a
pit, in short, when he fancies at that time, thorough ignorance, whatever
frightful thing he has expericned in the waking state, that is the dream
state. So also, when he thinks he is a god, as it were, or a king, as it
were, or thinks: “This universe is myself and I am all,: that is his
highest state.

21. “That indeed is his form-free from desires, free from evils, free
from fear. As a man fully embraced by his beloved wife knows nothing that
is without, nothing that is within, so does this infinite being (the
self), when fully embraced by the Supreme Self, know nothing that is
without, nothing that is within.

“That indeed is his form, in which all his desires are fulfilled, in
which all desires become the self and which is free from desires and
devoid of grief.

22. “In this state a father is no more a father, a mother is no more
a mother, the worlds are no more the worlds, the gods are no more the
gods, the Vedas are no more the Vedas. In this state a thief is no more a
thief, the killer of a noble brahmin is no more a killer, a chandala is no
more a chandala, a paulkasa is no more a paulkasa, a monk is no more a
monk, an ascetic is no more an ascetic.

“This form of his is untouched by good deeds and untouched by evil
deeds, for he is then beyond all the woes of his heart.

23. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not see, yet it
is seeing though it does not see; for there is no cessation of the vision
of the seer, because the seer is imperishable. There is then, however, no
second thing separate from the seer that it could see.

24. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not smell, yet it
is smelling though it does not smell; for there is no cessation of the
smelling of the smeller, because the smeller is imperishable. There is
then, however, no second thing separate from the smeller that it could
smell.

25. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not taste, yet it
is tasting though it does not taste; for there is no cessation of the
tasting of the taster, because the taster is imperishable. There is then,
however, no second thing separate from the taster that it could taste.

26. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not speak, yet it
is speaking though it does not speak; for there is no cessation of the
speaking of the speaker, because the speaker is imperishable. There is
then, however, no second thing separate from the speaker that it could
speak about.

27. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not hear, yet it
is hearing though it does not hear; for there is no cessation of the
hearing of the hearer, because the hearer is imperishable. There is then,
however, no second thing separate from the hearer that it could hear.

28. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not think, yet it
is thinking though it does not think; for there is no cessation of the
thinking of the thinker, because the thinker is imperishable. There is
then, however, no second thing separate from the thinker that it could
think of.

29. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not touch, yet it
is touching though it does not touch; for there is no cessation of the
touching of the toucher, because the toucher is imperishable. There is
then, however, no second thing separate from the toucher that it could
touch.

30. “And when it appears that in deep sleep it does not know, yet it
is knowing though it does not know; for there is no cessation of the
knowing of the knower, because the knower is imperishable. There is then,
however, no second thing separate from the knower that it could know.

31. “When in the waking and dream states there is, as it were,
another, then one can see the other, then one can smell the other, then
one can speak to the other, then one can hear the other, then one can
think of the other, then one can touch the other, then one can know the
other.

32. “In deep sleep it becomes transparent like water, the witness,
one and without a second. This is the World of Brahman, Your Majesty. This
is its supreme attainment, this is its supreme glory, this it its highest
world, this is its supreme bliss. On a particle of this bliss other
creatures live.”

Thus did Yajnavalkya teach Janaka.

33. “If a person is perfect of body and is prosperous, lord of others
and most lavishly supplied with all human enjoyments, he represents the
highest blessing among men. This human bliss multiplied a hundred times
makes one measure of the bliss of the Manes who have won their own world.
The bliss of these Manes who have won their world, multiplied a hundred
times, makes one measure of bliss in the world of the gandharvas. The
bliss of the gandharvas, multiplied a hundred times, makes one measure of
the bliss of the gods by action (those who attain godhood through
sacrificial rites). The bliss of the gods by action, multiplied a hundred
times, makes one measure of the bliss of the gods by birth, as also of one
who is versed in the Vedas, sinless and free from desire. The bliss of the
gods by birth, multiplied a hundred times, makes one measure of bliss in
the World of Prajapan (Viraj), as also of one who is versed in the Vedas,
sinless and free from desire. The bliss in the World of Prajapati,
multiplied a hundred times, makes one measure of bliss in the World of
Brahma (Hiranyagarbha), as also O£ one who is versed in the Vedas,
sinless and free from desire. This, indeed, is the supreme bliss. This is
the state of Brahman, O Emperor,” said Yajnavalkya.

Janaka said: I give you a thousand cows, venerable Sir. Please instruct me
further about Liberation itself.”

At this Yajnavalkya was afraid that the intelligent emperor was driving
him to give the solution of all his questions.

34. “That entity (the self), after enjoying himself and roaming in
the dream state and merely witnessing the results of merits and demerits,
hastens back in the reverse way to its former condition, the waking state.

35. “Just as a heavily loaded cart moves along, creaking, even so the
self identified with the body, being presided over by the Self which is
all consciousness (the Supreme Self), moves along, groaning, when
breathing becomes difficult at the approach of death.

36. “When this body grows thin-becomes emaciated or disease-then, as
a mango or a fig or a fruit of the peepul tree becomes detached from its
stalk, so does this infinite being completdy detaching himself from the
parts of the body, again move on, in the same way that he came, to another
body for the remanisfestation of his vital breath (prana).

37. “Just as, when a king comes, the ugras appointed to deal with
crimes; the sutas and the leaders of the village await him with food and
drink and lodgings ready, saying: ‘Here he comes, here he comes,’ even so,
for the person who knows about the fruits of his own work, there wait all
the elements, saying: ‘Here comes Brahman, here he comes.’

38. “Just as, when the king wishes to depart, the ugras appointed to
deal with crimes, the sutas and the leaders of the village gather around
him, even so do all the organs gather around the self, at the time of
death, when it struggles for breath.”

Chapter
IV

Death and the Hereafter

1. Yajnavalkya continued: “Now, when that self becomes weak and
unconscious, as it were, the organs gather around it. Having wholly seized
these particles of light, the self comes to the heart. When the presiding
deity of the eye turns back from all sides, the dying man fails to notice
colour.

2. “The eye becomes united with the subtle body; then people say: ‘He
does not see.’ The nose becomes united with the subtle body; then they
say: ‘He does not smell.’ The tongue becomes united with the subtle body;
then they say: ‘He does not taste.’ The vocal organ becomes united with
the subtle body; then they say: ‘He does not speak.’ The ear becomes
united with the subtle body; then they say: ‘He does not hear.’ The mind
becomes united with the subtle body; then they say: ‘He does not think.’
The skin becomes united with the subtle body; then they say: ‘He does not
touch.’ The intellect becomes united with the subtle body; then they say:
‘He does not know.’

“The upper end of the heart lights up and by that light the self
departs, either through the eye or through the head or through any other
part (aperture) of the body.

“And when the self departs, the vital breath follows and when the
vital breath departs, all the organs follow.

“Then the self becomes endowed with a particular consciousness and
passes on to the body to be attained by that consciousness.

“Knowledge, work and past experience follow the self.

3. “And just as a leech moving on a blade of grass reaches its end,
takes hold of another and draws itself together towards it, so does the
self, after throwing off this body, that is to say, after making it
unconscious, take hold of another support and draw itself together towards
it.

4. “And just as a goldsmith takes a small quantity of gold and
fashions out of it another-a newer and better-form, so does the self,
after throwing off this body, that is to say, after making it unconscious,
fashion another-a newer and better-form, suited to the Manes, or the
gandharvas, or the gods, or Viraj, or Hiranyagarbha, or other beings.

5. “That self is indeed Brahman; it is also identified with the
intellect, the mind and the vital breath, with the eyes and ears, with
earth, water, air and akasa, with fire and with what is other than fire,
with desire and with absence of desire, with anger and with absence of
anger, with righteousness and unrighteousness, with all-it is identified,
as is well known, with this (i.e. what is perceived) and with that (i.e.
what is inferred). According as it acts and according as it behaves, so it
becomes: by doing good it becomes good and by doing evil it becomes evil.
It becomes virtuous through virtuous action and evil through evil action.

“Others, however, say that the self is identified with desire alone.
As is its desire, so is its resolution; and as is its resolution, so is
its deed; and whatever deed it does, that it reaps.

6. “Regarding this there is the following verse:

“Because of attachment, the transmigrating self, together with its
work, attains that result to which its subtle body or mind clings. Having
exhausted in the other world the results of whatever work it did in this
life, it returns from that world to this world for fresh work.’

“Thus does the man who desires transmigrate. But as to the man who
does not desire-who is without desire, who is freed from desire, whose
desire is satisfied, whose only object of desire is the Self-his organs do
not depart. Being Brahman, he merges in Brahman.

7. “Regarding this there are the following verses:

“When all the desires that dwell in his heart are got rid of, then
does the mortal man become immortal and attain Brahman in this very body.’

“Just as the slough of a snake lies, dead and cast away, on an
ant-hill, even so lies this body. Then the self becomes disembodied and
immortal Spirit, the Supreme Self (Prana), Brahman, the Light.”

Janaka, Emperor of Videha, said: “I give you, venerable Sir, a
thousand cows.”

8. “Regarding this there are the following verses:

‘The subtle, ancient path stretching far away has been touched (reached)
by me; nay, I have realized it myself. By this path the wise, the knowers
of Brahman, move on to the celestial sphere (Liberation) after the fall of
this body, having been freed even while living.’

9. ‘Some speak of it as white, others as blue, grey, green, or red. This
path is realized by a knower of Brahman and is trod by whoever knows
Brahman, has done good deeds and is identified with the Supreme Light.’

10. ‘Into blinding darkness enter those who worship ignorance; into a
greater darkness than that, as it were, enter those who are devoted to
knowledge.’

11. ‘Cheerless indeed are those worlds covered with blinding darkness. To
them after death go those people who are ignorant and unwise.’

12. ‘If a man knows the Self as I am this, then desiring what and for
whose sake will he suffer in the wake of the body?’

13. ‘Whoever has realized and intimately known the Self, Which has entered
this perilous and perplexing place (the body), is the maker of the
universe; for he is the maker of all. All is his Self and he, again, is
indeed the Self of all.’

14. ‘Dwelling in this very body, we have somehow realized Brahman;
otherwise we should have remained ignorant and great destruction would
have overtaken us. Those who know Brahman become immortal, while others
only suffer misery.’

15. ‘When a person following the instructions of a teacher directly
beholds the effulgent Self, the Lord of all that has been and will be, he
no longer wishes to hide himself from It.’

16. ‘That under which the year with its days rolls on-upon that immortal
Light of l lights the gods meditate as longevity.’

17. ‘That in which the five groups of five and the akasa rest, that very
Atman I regard as the Immortal Brahman. Knowing that Brahman, I am
immortal.’

18. ‘They who know the Vital Breath (Prana) of the vital breath (prana),
the Eye of the eye, the Ear of the ear, the Mind of the mind, have
realized the ancient, primordial Brahman.’

19. ‘Through the mind alone is Brahman to be realized. There is in It no
diversity. He goes from death to death who sees in It, as it were,
diversity.’

20. ‘Unknowable and constant, It should be realized in one form only. The
Self is free from taint, beyond the akasa, birthless, infinite and
unchanging.’

21. ‘The intelligent seeker of Brahman, learning about the Self alone,
should practise wisdom (prajna). Let him not think of too many words, for
that is exhausting to the organ of speech.’

22. “That great, unborn Self, which is identified with the intellect
(vijnanamaya) and which dwells in the midst of the organs, lies in the
akasa within the heart. It is the controller of all, the lord of all, the
ruler of all. It does not become greater through good deeds or smaller
through evil deeds. It is the lord of all, the ruler of all beings, the
protector of all beings. It is the dam that serves as the boundary to keep
the different worlds apart. The brahmins seek to realize It through the
study of the Vedas, through sacrifices, through gifts and through
austerity which does not lead to annihilation. Knowing It alone one
becomes a sage (muni). Wishing for this World (i.e. the Self) alone, monks
renounce their homes.

“The knowers of Brahman of olden times, it is said, did not wish for
offspring because they thought: ‘What shall we do with offspring-we who
have attained this Self, this World?’ They gave up, it is said, their
desire for sons, for wealth and for the worlds and led the life of
religious mendicants. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for
wealth and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for the
worlds; for both these, indeed, are but desires.

‘This Self is That which has been described as Not this, not this. It is
imperceptible, for It is not perceived; undecaying, for It never decays;
unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered, for It never feels pain
and never suffers injury.

‘Him who knows this these two thoughts do not overcome: For this I did an
evil deed and For this I did a good deed. He overcomes both. Things done
or not done do not afflict him.’

23. “This has been expressed by the following Rig verse:

‘This is the eternal glory of Brahman: It neither increases nor decreases
through work. Therefore one should know the nature of That alone. Knowing
It one is not touched by evil action.’

“Therefore he who knows It as such becomes self-controlled, calm,
withdrawn into himself, patient and collected; he sees the Self in his own
self (body); he sees all as the Self. Evil does not overcome him, but he
overcomes all evil. Evil does not afflict him, but he consumes all evil.
He becomes sinless, taintless, free from doubts and a true Brahmana
(knower of Brahman). This is the World of Brahman, O Emperor and you have
attained It.” Thus said Yajnavalkya.

Janaka said: ‘Venerable Sir, I give you the empire of Videha and myself,
too, with it, to wait upon you.

24. That great, unborn Self is the eater of food and the giver of wealth.
He who knows this obtains wealth.

25 That great, unborn Self is undecaying, immortal, undying, fearless; It
is Brahman (infinite). Brahman is indeed fearless. He who knows It as such
becomes the fearless Brahman.

Chapter V

Yajnavalkya and Maitreyi
(II)


1. Yajnavalkya had two wives: Maitreyi and Katyayani. Of these, Maitreyi
was conversant with the Knowledge of Brahman, while Katyayani had an
essentially feminine outlook. One day Yajnavalkya, when he wished to
embrace another mode of life,

2. Said: “Maitreyi, my dear, I am going to renounce this life to
become a monk. Let me make a final settlement between you and Katyayani.”

3. Maitreyi said: “Venerable Sir, if indeed the whole earth full of
wealth belonged to me, would I be immortal through that or not?”
“No,” replied Yajnavalkya, “your life would be just like
that of people who have plenty. Of Immortality, however, there is no hope
through wealth.”

4. Then Maitreyi said: “What should I do with that which would not
make me immortal? Tell me, venerable Sir, of that alone which you know to
be the only means of attaining Immortality.”

5 Yajnavalkya replied: “My dear, you have been my beloved even before
and now you have resolved to know what is after my heart. If you wish, my
dear, I shall explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate on what I
say.”

6. And he said: “Verily, not for the sake of the husband, my dear, is
the husband loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self which, in its
true nature, is one with the Supreme Self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the wife, my dear, is the wife loved,
but she is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the sons, my dear, are the sons loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of wealth, my dear, is wealth loved, but it
is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the animals, my dear, are the animals
loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the brahmin, my dear, is the brahmin
loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the kshatriya, my dear, is the kshatriya
loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the worlds, my dear, are the worlds
loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the gods, my dear, are the gods loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the Vedas, my dear, are the Vedas loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the beings, my dear, are the beings
loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the All, my dear, is the All loved, but
it is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, my dear Maitreyi, it is the Self that should be
realized-should be heard of, reflected on and meditated upon. By the
realisation of the Self, my dear, through hearing, reflection and
meditation, all this is known.

7. “The brahmin rejects one who knows him as different from the Self.
The kshatriya rejects one who knows him as different from the Self. The
worlds reject one who knows them as different from the Self. The gods
reject one who knows them as different from the Self. The Vedas reject one
who knows them as different from the Self. The beings reject one who knows
them as different from the Self. The All rejects one who knows it as
different from the Self. This brahmin, this kshatriya, these worlds, these
gods, these Vedas, these beings and this All-are that Self.

8-10. “As the various particular kinds of notes of a drum, when it is
beaten, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the
general note of the drum or the general sound produced by different kinds
of strokes is grasped;

“And as the various particular notes of a conch, when it is blown,
cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the general
note of the conch or the general sound produced by different kinds of
blowing is grasped;

“And as the various particular notes of a vina, when it is played,
cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the general
note of the vina or the general sound produced by the different kinds of
playing is grasped;

11. “As from a fire kindled with wet fuel various kinds of smoke
issue forth, even so, my dear, the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the
Sama-Veda, the Atharvangirasa, history (itihasa), mythology (purana), the
arts (vidya), Upanishads, verses (slokas), aphorisms (sutras),
elucidations (anuvyakhyanas), explanations (vyakhyanas), sacrifices,
oblations in the fire, food, drink, this world, the next world and all
beings are all like the breath of this infinite Reality. From this Supreme
Self are all these, indeed, breathed forth.

12. “As the ocean is the one goal of all waters (the place where they
merge), so the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, the nostrils
are the one goal of all smells, the tongue is the one goal of all savours,
the ear is the one goal of all sounds, the mind is the one goal of all
deliberations, the intellect is the one goal of all forms of knowledge,
the hands are the one goal of all actions, the organ of generation is the
one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, the excretory organ is the one goal of
all excretions, the feet are the one goal of all kinds of walking, the
organ of speech is the one goal of all the Vedas.

13. “As a lump of salt has neither inside nor outside and is
altogether a homogeneous mass of taste, even so this Self, my dear, has
neither inside nor outside and is altogether a homogeneous mass of
Intelligence. This Self comes out as a separate entity from the elements
and with their destruction this separate existence is also destroyed.
After attaining this oneness it has no more consciousness. This is what I
say, my dear.”

So said Yajnavalkya.

14. Then Maitreyi said: “Just here you have completely bewildered me,
venerable Sir. Indeed, I do not at all understand this.”

He replied: “Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering, my dear.
Verily, this Self is immutable and indestructible.

15. “For when there is duality, as it were, then one sees another,
one smells another, one tastes another, one speaks to another, one hears
another, one thinks of another, one touches another, one knows another.
But when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then
what should he see and through what, what should he smell and through
what, what should he taste and through what, what should he speak and
through what, what should he hear and through what, what should he think
and through what, what should he touch and through what, what should he
know and through what? Through what should one know That Owing to which
all this is known?

“This Self is That which has been described as
‘Not this, not this.’ It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived;
undecaying, for It never decays; unattached, for It never attaches Itself;
unfettered, for It never feels pain and never suffers injury. Through
what, O Maitreyi, should one know the Knower?

“Thus you have the instruction given to you. This much, indeed, is
the means to Immortality.”

Having said this, Yajnavalkya renounced home.

Chapter
VI

The Line of Teachers

1. Now the line of teachers:

We received the knowledge from Pautimashya. Pautimashya received it from
Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another Pautimashya. This Pautimashya from
another Gaupavana. This Gaupavana from Kausika. Kausika from Kaundinya.
Kaundinya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kausika and Gautama. Gautama

2. From Agnivesya. Agnivesya from Gargya. Gargya from another Gargya. This
Gargya from Gautama. Gautama from Saitava. Saitava from Pirasaryayana.
Parasarayayana from Gargyayana. Gargyayana from Uddalakayana. Uddalakayana
from Jabalayana. Jabalayana from Madhyandinayana. Madhyandinayana from
Saukarayana. Saukarayana from Kashayana. Kashayana from Sayakayana.
Sayakayana from Kausikayani. Kausikayani

3. From Ghritakausika. Ghritakausika from Parasaryayana. Parasaryayana
from Parasarya. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and
Yiska. Asurayana from Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. Aupajandhani
from Asuri. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Atreya from
Manti. Manti from Gautama. Gautama from another Gautama. This Gautama from
Vatsya. Vatsya from SandiIya. Sandilya from Kaisorya Kapya. Kaisorya Kapya
from Kumaraharita. Kumaraharita from Galava. Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya.
Vidarbhikaundinya from Vatsanapat Babhrava. Vatsanapat Babhrava from
Pathin Saubhara. Pathin Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa. Ayasya Angirasa
from Abhuti Tvashtra. Abhuti Tvashtra from Visvarupa Tvashtra. Visvarupa
Tvashtra from the two Asvins. The two Asvins from Dadhyach Atharvana.
Dadhyach Atharvana from Atharvana Daiva. Atharvana Daiva from Mrityu
Pradhvamsana. Mrityu Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from
Ekarshi. Ekarshi from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyashti. Vyashti from
Sanaru. Sanaru from Sanitana. Sanitana from Sanaga. Sanaga from
Parameshthin (Viraj). Parameshthin from Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). Brahman
is self-born (eternal). Salutation to Brahman.

Part
Five

Chapter I

The Infinity of Brahman

1. Om. Infinite is That Brahman, infinite in this manifested universe.
From the Infinite Brahman proceeds the infinite. After the realization of
the Great Identity or after the cosmic dissolution, when the infinity of
the infinite universe merges in the Infinite Brahman, there remains the
Infinite Brahman alone.

Om is the Akasa Brahman-the primeval akasa. It is the akasa containing
air, says the son of Kauravayarn. It (Om) is the Veda-thus the knowers of
Brahman know; for through it one knows what is to he known.

Chapter
II

The Three Great Disciplines

1. Prajapati had three kinds of offspring: gods, men and demons (asuras).
They lived with Prajapati, practising the vows of brahmacharins. After
finishing their term, the gods said to him: “Please instruct us,
Sir.” To them he uttered the syllable da and asked:

“Have you understood?” They replied: “We have. You said to
us, ‘Control yourselves (damyata).’ He said: “Yes, you have
understood.”

2. Then the men said to him: “Please instruct us, Sir” To them
he uttered the same syllable da and asked:

“Have you understood?” They replied: “We have. You said to
us, ‘Give (datta).’ He said: ‘Yes, you have understood.

3. Then the demons said to him: “Please instruct us, Sir.” To
them he uttered the same syllable da and asked:

“Have you understood?” They replied: “We have. You said to
us: ‘Be compassionate (dayadhvam).’ He said: “Yes, you have
understood.”

That very thing is repeated even today by the heavenly voice, in the form
of thunder, as “Da,” “Da,” “Da,” which
means: “Control yourselves,” “Give,” and “Have
compassion.” Therefore one should learn these three: self-control,
giving and mercy.

Chapter
III

Brahman as the Heart

1. Prajapati is this-the heart (intellect). It (the heart) is Brahman. It
is all. Hridayam (the heart) consists of three syllables. One syllable is
hri; and to him who knows this, his own people and others bring presents.
One syllable is da; and to him who knows this, his own people and others
give their powers. One syllable is yam; and he who knows this goes to
heaven.

Chapter
IV

Meditation on Satya Brahman

1. That intellect Brahman was verily this-satya alone. And whosoever knows
this great, glorious first-born one as the Satya Brahman conquers these
worlds. And his enemy is thus conquered and becomes non-existent-yes,
whosoever knows this great, glorious first-born one as the Satya Brahman;
for Satya indeed is that Brahman.

Chapter
V

In Praise of Satya Brahman

1. In the beginning this universe was water alone. That water produced
Satya. Satya is Brahman. Brahman produced Prajapati and Prajapati the
gods. Those gods meditate on Satya. This name Satya consists of three
syllables. Sa is one syllable, ti is one syllable and ya is one syllable.
The first and last syllables are the truth. In the middle is untruth. This
untruth is enclosed on both sides by truth; thus truth preponderates.
Untruth does not hurt him who knows this.

2. Now, that which is Satya is the sun-the being who dwells in yonder orb
and the being who is in the right eye. These two rest on each other. The
former (the being in the sun) rests on the latter (the being in the right
eye) through his rays and the latter rests on the former through his
organs. When the individual self is about to leave the body, he sees the
solar orb clearly (i.e. without rays). Those rays no longer come to him.

3. Of this being who is in the solar orb, the syllable Bhuh is the head,
for there is one head and there is this one syllable; the word Bhuvah is
the arms, for there are two arms and there are these two syllables; the
word Svah is the legs, for there are two legs and there are these two
syllables. His secret name is Ahar. He who knows this destroys evil and
leaves it behind.

4. Of this being who is in the right eye, the syllable Bhur is the head,
for there is one head and there is this one syllable; the word Bhuvar is
the arms, for there are two arms and there are these two syllables; the
word Svar is the legs, for there are two legs and there are these two
syllables. His secret name is Aham. He who knows this destroys evil and
leaves it behind.

Chapter
VI

Meditation on Brahman as the Mind

1. This being identified with the mind and resplendent by nature is
realized by yogis within the heart as of the size of a grain of rice or
barley. He is the lord of all, the ruler of all and governs all this
-whatever there is.

Chapter
VII

Meditation on Brahman as Lightning

1. They say that lightning is Brahman. It is called lightning (vidyut)
because it scatters (vidanat) darkness. Whosoever knows this-that
lightning is Brahman-scatters the evils that are ranged against him; for
lightning is indeed Brahman.

Chapter
VIII

Meditation on the Vedas as a Cow

1. One should meditate upon speech (the Vedas) as a cow. She (speech) has
four teats: the sounds Svaha; Vashat, Hanta and Svadha. The gods live on
two of her teats, Svaha and Vashat; men, on Hanta; and the Manes on Svadha.
Her bull is the vital breath (prana) and her calf, the mind.

Chapter
IX

Meditation on the Vaisvanara Fire

1. This fire which is within a man and digests food that is eaten is
Vaisvanara. Its sound is that which one hears by stopping the ears. When a
man is about to leave the body, he hears this sound no more.

Chapter
X

The Path of the Departing Soul

1. When a man departs from this world, he reaches the air. The air opens
there for him as wide as the hole of a chariot wheel. Through this opening
he ascends and reaches the sun. The sun opens there for him as wide as the
hole of a lambara. By this opening he ascends and reaches the moon. The
moon opens there for him as wide as the hole of a drum. By this opening he
ascends and reaches a World free from grief and cold. There he dwells for
endless years.

Chapter
XI

The Supreme Austerities

1. The supreme austerity is indeed that a man suffers when he is ill. He
who knows this wins the highest world.

The supreme austerity is indeed that a man, after death, is carried to the
forest. He who knows this wins the highest world.

The supreme austerity is indeed that a man, after death, is laid on the
fire. He who knows this wins the highest world.

Chapter
XII

Meditation on Food and the Vital Breath as Brahman

1. Some say that food is Brahman; but this is not so, for food decays
without the vital breath (prana). Others say that the vital breath is
Brahman; but this is not so, for the vital breath dries up without food.
These two deities (food and the vital breath), when they become united,
attain the highest state (Brahmanhood). Thus reflecting, Pratrida said to
his father: “What good, indeed, can I do him who knows this and what
evil can I do him either?”

His father answered, stopping him with a gesture of his hand: “Oh,
no, Pratrida; for who would attain the highest merely by being identified
with these two?”

Further, he (the father) said to him this: “It is vi; food is verily
vi, for all these creatures rest (visanti) on food. It is ram; the vital
breath is ram, for all these creatures delight (ramante) in the vital
breath.” All creatures rest on him, all creatures delight in him, who
knows this.

Chapter
XIII

Meditation on the Vital Breath

1. One should meditate on the vital breath as the Uktha. The vital breath
is the Uktha, for it raises up (utthapayati) all this universe. From him
who knows this there is raised a son who is a knower of the vital breath
and he wins union with and abode in the same world as the Uktha.

2. One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Yajus. The vital
breath is the Yajus, for all these beings are united (yujyante) with one
another if the vital breath is present. All beings are united to give
eminence to him who knows this and he wins union with and abode in the
same world as the Yajus (vital breath).

3. One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Saman. The vital
breath is the Saman, for all these beings meet (samyanchi) if the Saman
(vital breath) is present. For the sake of him who knows this all beings
are united and they succeed in giving him eminence; and he wins union with
and abode in the same world as the Saman.

4. One should meditate upon the vital breath as the Kshatra. The vital
breath is the Kshatra, for the vital breath protects (trayate) the body
from wounds (khanitoh). He who knows this attains the Kshatra (vital
breath) which needs no other protector and he wins union with and abode in
the same world as the Kshatra.

Chapter
XIV

The Sacred Gayatri

1. The words Bhumi (earth), Antariksha (sky) and Dyaus (heaven) form eight
syllables and the first foot of the Gayatri consists of eight syllables.
So the three worlds constitute the first foot of the Gayatri. Whosoever
knows this about the first foot of the Gayatri wins all that is in the
three worlds.

2. Richah, Yajumshi and Samani form eight syllables and the second foot of
the Gayatri consists of eight syllables. So these three Vedas constitute
the second foot of the Gayatri. Whosoever thus knows the second foot of
the Gayatri wins as much as that treasury of knowledge, the three Vedas,
has to confer.

3. Prana, apana and vyana form eight syllables and the third foot of the
Gayatri. consists of eight syllables. So these three forms of the vital
breath constitute the third foot of the Gayatri. Whosoever knows this
about the third foot of the Gayatri wins all the living beings that are in
the universe.

Now, its turiya, apparently visible (darsata) and supramundane (paroraja)
foot is this-sun that glows yonder. That which is fourth is called turiya.
He (the being in the solar orb) is apparently visible (darsata), because
he is seen, as it were, by the yogis. He is supramundane (paroraja),
because he shines alone on the whole universe as its overlord. He who thus
knows the fourth foot of the Gayatri shines with splendour and glory.

4. That Gayatri rests on that fourth, apparently visible, supramundane
foot. And that, again, rests on truth. The eye is truth, for the eye is
indeed truth. Therefore, even today, if two persons come disputing, one
saying: “I saw it,” and another: “I heard of it,” we
should trust the one who says: “I saw it.

That truth rests on strength. The vital breath (prana) is strength. Hence
truth rests on the vital breath. Therefore they say that strength is more
powerful than truth.

Thus the Gayatri is based on the vital breath within the body. That
Gayatri protected the gayas. The organs are the gayas; therefore the
Gayatri protected (tatre) the organs. Because it protected the organs, it
is called the Gayatri. The Savitri verse, which the teacher communicates
to the pupil, is no other than this. It saves the organs of the pupil to
whom it is imparted by the teacher.

5. Some impart to the pupil the Savitri which is in the Anushtubh metre,
saying: “The goddess of speech is Anushtubh; so we shall impart it to
him.”

But one should not do that. One should impart only that Savitri which is
Gayatri. Verily, if one who knows this accepts too much as a gift, as it
were, it is not enough for even one foot of the Gayatri.

6. If he (the knower of the Gayatri) accepts as a gift the three worlds
full of wealth, he will be receiving the fruit of knowing only the first
foot of the Gayatri. If he accepts as a gift as much as this treasury of
knowledge, the Vedas, has to confer, he will be receiving the fruit of
knowing only the second foot of the Gayatri. And if he accepts as a gift
as much as is covered by all living creatures in the world, he will be
receiving the fruit of knowing only the third foot of the Gayatri. While
the fruit of knowing its fourth, apparently visible, supramundane
foot-yonder sun that glows-is not to be counterbalanced by any gift
received.

Indeed, how could anyone receive so much as a gift?

7. The salutation to the Gayatri:

“O Gayatri, thou art one-footed, two-footed, three-footed and
four-footed. And thou art without any feet, for thou art unattainable.
Salutation to thee, fourth foot, apparently visible and supramundane! May
the enemy never attain his object!”

Should the knower of the Gayatri bear hatred towards anyone, he should
either use this mantra: “May his desired object never
flourish!”-in which case that object of the person against whom he
thus salutes the Gayatri never flourishes-or he may say: “May I
attain that cherished object of his!”

8. On this subject Janaka, Emperor of Videha, said to Budila, the son of
Asvatarasva: “Well, how is it that you, who called yourself a knower
of the Gayatri, have come to he an elephant and are carrying me?”

He replied: “Because, Your Majesty, I did not know its mouth.”

Janaka said: “Fire is its mouth. If people put a large quantity of
fuel into the fire, it is all burnt up. Similarly, a man who knows this,
even if he commits a great many sins, consumes them all and becomes pure,
clean and free from decay and death.”

Chapter
XV

The Prayer of a Dying Person

1. The door (real nature) of the truth (Satya Brahman) is covered by a
golden disc. Open it, O Nourisher! Remove it so that I who have been
worshipping the truth may behold it.

O Nourisher! O lone Traveller of the sky! O Controller! O Sun!

O Offspring of Prajapati! Gather your rays. Withdraw your light. I would
see through your grace that form of yours which is the most benign. I am
indeed He, that purusha who dwells in the sun. I am immortal.

Now when my body falls may my breath return to the all-pervading Prana!
May this body, reduced to ashes, return to the earth!

Om. O Fire, who art the symbol Om, O god of deliberations, remember,
remember all that I have done.

O Fire, lead us by the good path towards the enjoyment of the fruit of our
action. You know, O god, all our deeds. Destroy our sin of deceit. We
offer by words repeated salutations to you.

Part
Six Chapter I

The Supremacy of the Prana

1. Om. He who knows what is the oldest and greatest becomes the oldest and
greatest among his kinsmen. The vital breath (prana) is indeed the oldest
and greatest. He who knows this becomes the oldest and greatest among his
kinsmen and also among those of whom he wishes to be so.

2. He who knows what is the most excellent (vasishtha) becomes the most
excellent among his kinsmen. The organ of speech is indeed the vasishtha.
He who knows this becomes the most excellent among his kinsmen and also
among those of whom he wishes to be so.

3. He who knows what has the attribute of steadiness (pratishtha) lives
steadily in rough as well as smooth places and times. The eye indeed is
endowed with steadiness, for with the help of the eye one remains steady
in rough as well as smooth places and times. He who knows this lives
steadily in rough as well as smooth places and times.

4. He who knows prosperity (sampad) attains whatever object he desires.
The ear indeed is prosperity, for when the ear is intact all the Vedas are
acquired. He who knows this attains whatever object he desires.

5. He who knows the abode (ayatana) becomes the abode of his kinsmen and
also of other people. The mind indeed is the abode. He who knows this
becomes the abode of his kinsmen as well as of other people.

6. He who knows what has the attribute of procreation (prajati) is
enriched with children and animals. Semen verily has this attribute. He
who knows this is enriched with children and animals.

7. These organs, disputing about who was superior among them, went to
Prajapati and asked: “Which one among us is the most excellent (vasishtha)?”
He said: “That one among you is the most excellent by whose departure
this body is considered to suffer most.”

8. The organ of speech departed. After being absent for a whole year it
came back and said: “How have you been able to live without me?”
The other organs said: “We lived just as dumb people live, without
speaking through the tongue, but living through the vital breath, seeing
through the eye, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and
procreating through the organ of generation.” Then the organ of
speech entered the body.

9. The eye departed. After being absent for a whole year it came back and
said: “How have you been able to live without me?” The other
organs said: “We lived just as blind people live, without seeing
through the eye, but living through the vital breath, speaking through the
organ of speech, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and
procreating through the organ of generation.” Then the eye entered
the body.

10. The ear went out. After being absent for a whole year it came back and
said: “How have you been able to live without me?” The other
organs said: “We lived just as deaf people live, without hearing
through the ear, but living through the vital breath, speaking through the
organ of speech, seeing through the eye, knowing through the mind and
procreating through the organ of generation.” Then the ear entered
the body.

11. The mind went out. After being absent for a whole year it came back
and said: “How have you been able to live without me?” The other
organs said: “We lived just as idiots live, without knowing through
the mind, but living through the vital breath, speaking through the organ
of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and procreating
through the organ of generation.” Then the mind entered the body.

12. Then the organ of generation went out. After being absent for a whole
year it came back and said: “How have you been able to live without
me?” The other organs said: “We lived just as impotent people
live, without procreating children through the organ of generation, but
living through the vital breath, speaking through the organ of speech,
seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and knowing through the
mind.” Then the organ of generation entered the body.

13. Then as the vital breath was about to depart, it uprooted the organs
from their places just as a great, noble horse of the Sindhu country tears
up the pegs to which his feet are tied. They said: “Venerable Sir,
please do not go out. We shall not be able to live without you.”

“If I am such, then give me an offering.”

“So be it.”

14. The organ of speech said: “That attribute of being most excellent
which I possess is yours.”

The eye said: “That attribute of steadiness which I possess is
yours.”

The ear said: “That attribute of prosperity which I possess is
yours.”

The mind said: “That attribute of being an abode which I possess is
yours.

The organ of generation said: “That attribute of procreation which I
possess is yours.”

Then the vital breath said: “If I am such, then what will be my food
and what will be my dress?”

They replied: “Whatever food there is-including that of dogs, worms,
insects and moths-will be your food and water will be your dress.”

He who knows the food of the vital breath to be such never happens to eat
anything or accept anything that is not food. Wise men who are versed in
the Vedas therefore take a sip of water Just before and after eating; they
think that thereby they remove the nakedness of the vital breath.

Chapter
II

The Process of Rebirth

1. Svetaketu, the grandson of Aruna, came to the assembly of the Panchalas.
He approached Pravahana, the son of Jivala, who was being waited upon by
his courtiers. As soon as the king saw him, he said:

“Is it you, boy?” He replied: “Yes, Sir.”

Then the king asked: “Have you been taught by your father?”
“Yes,” he replied.

2. The king said: “Do you know how people, after departing from this
life, proceed on different paths?” “No,” he replied.

“Do you know how they return to this world?” “No,” he
replied.

“Do you know why the other world is never filled up even though so
many people go there again and again?” “No,” he replied.

“Do you know after how many offerings of oblations the water (the
liquid oblation) becomes endowed with a human voice, rises up and
speaks?” “No,” he replied.

“Do you know the means of access to the path leading to the gods or
to that leading to the Manes, that is to say, through what deeds men
attain the path leading to the gods or that leading to the Manes? We have
heard the following words of the Mantra: ‘I have heard of the two paths
for men, one leading to the Manes and the other to the gods. Going along
them they (departed souls) are united with their destination. They (the
paths) lie between the father (heaven) and the mother (earth).’

Svetaketu said: “I do not know even one of these.”

3. Then the king invited him to stay. But the boy, disregarding the
invitation, hurried away. He went to his father and said: “Did you
not tell me before that you had fully instructed me?”

“What then, my intelligent child?”

“That fellow of a kshatriya asked me five questions and I did not
know one of them.”

“What were they?”

“These,” said Svetaketu and he recited them.

4. The father said: “My child, believe me, whatever I myself knew, I
told you. But come, let us go there and live as religious students (brahmacharins).”
“You may go, Sir,” the son replied.

Then Gautama went to where King Pravahana, the son of Jivala, was giving
audience. The king offered him a seat, ordered water for him and made him
the reverential offering. Then he said: “Revered Gautama, we will
give you a boon.”

5. Gautama said: “You have promised me this boon. Now please tell me
what you spoke about to my boy.”

6. The king said: “Ah, those are divine boons, Gautama. Please ask a
human boon.”

7. Gautama said: “You know well that I have gold, cows, horses,
maidservants, retinue and apparel. Please do not be ungenerous towards me
in regard to that gift which is plentiful, infinite and
inexhaustible.”

The king said: “Then, verily, O Gautama, you should ask it in the
prescribed way.”

Gautama replied: “I approach you as a disciple.”

The ancients used to approach a teacher through mere declaration. So
Gautama lived with the king by merely announcing that he was a student.

8. The king said: “Please do not be offended with us even as your
paternal grandfather was not offended with ours. Before now this knowledge
never rested with a brahmin. But I shall teach it to you, for who can
refuse you when you speak like this?

9. “Yonder world is the sacrificial fire, the sun is its fuel, the
rays its smoke, the day its flame, the four quarters its cinders and the
intermediate quarters its sparks. In this fire the gods offer faith as
libation. Out of that offering King Moon is born.

10. “Parjanya (the god of rain), O Gautama, is the fire, the year is
its fuel, the clouds its smoke, lightning its flame, the thunderbolt its
cinders, the rumbling its sparks. In this fire the gods offer King Moon as
libation. Out of that offering rain is produced.

11. “This world, O Gautama, is the fire, the earth is its fuel, fire
its smoke, the night its flame, the moon its cinders, the stars its
sparks. In this fire the gods offer rain as libation. Out of that offering
food is produced.

12. “Man, O Gautama, is the fire, the open mouth is its fuel, the
vital breath its smoke, speech its flame, the eye its cinders and the ear
its sparks. In this fire the gods offer food as libation. Out of that
offering semen is produced.

13. “Woman, O Gautama, is the fire, her sexual organ is the fuel, the
hairs the smoke, the vulva the flame, sexual intercourse the cinders,
enjoyment the sparks. In this fire the gods offer semen as libation. Out
of this offering a man is born. He lives as long as he is to live. Then,
when he dies,

14. “They carry him to be offered in the fire. The fire becomes his
fire, the fuel his fuel, the smoke his smoke, the flame his flame, the
cinders his cinders and the sparks his sparks. In this fire the gods offer
the man as libation. Out of this offering the man emerges in radiant
splendour.

15. “Those even among householders who know this, as described and
those too who, living in the forest, meditate with faith upon the Satya
Brahman (Hiranyagarbha), reach the deity identified with flame, from him
the deity of the day, from him the deity of) the fortnight in which the
moon waxes, from him the deities of the six months during which the sun
travels northward, from them the deity identified with the world of the
gods (devaloka), from him the sun, from the sun the deity of lightning.
Then a being created from the mind of Hiranyagarbha comes and leads them
to the worlds of Brahmin. In those worlds of Brahma they become exalted
and live for many years. They no more return to this world.

16. “But those who conquer the worlds through sacrifices, charity and
austerity reach the deity of smoke, from smoke, the deity of the night,
from night the deity of the fortnight in which the moon wanes, from the
decreasing half of the moon the deities of the six months during which the
sun travels southward, from these months the deity of the world of the
Manes and from the world of the Manes, the moon. Reaching the moon they
become food. There the gods enjoy them, just as here the priests drink the
shining soma juice-saying as it were: “Flourish, dwindle.” And
when their past work is exhausted they reach this very akasa, from the
akasa they reach the air, from the air rain, from rain the earth. Reaching
the earth they become food. Then they are again offered in the fire of man
and thence in the fire of woman. Out of the fire of woman they are born
and perform rites with a view to going to other worlds. Thus do they
rotate.

“Those, however, who do not know these two ways become insects and
moths and those creatures which often bite (i.e. mosquitoes and
gnats).”

Chapter
III

Rites for the Attainment of Wealth

1. Whoever wishes to attain greatness (i.e. wealth for performing
sacrificial rites) should act as follows: On an auspicious day of the
fortnight in which the moon waxes, under a constellation bearing a
masculine name, during the northward journey of the sun, he should
undertake for twelve days a vow connected with the Upasads, gather in a
cup or a bowl made of fig wood all the herbs and their grains, sweep and
plaster the ground, lay the fire, spread the kusa grass, purify the
offering (clarified butter) according to the rules, place between himself
and the fire the mantha (the paste made of those herbs etc.) and offer
oblations with the following mantras:

“O Fire, to all those gods under you who spitefully slay men’s
desires, I offer their share. May they be satisfied and satisfy me with
all the objects of my desire! Svaha!

“To that deity who turns out to be spiteful under your protection,
thinking that she is the support of all, I offer this stream of clarified
butter. Svaha!”

2. “Svaha to the oldest, svaha to the greatest!”-uttering these
words, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering
to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

“Svaha to the vital breath (prana), svaha to the vasishtha (the most
excellent)!”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation in the fire
and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

“Svaha to the organ of speech, svaha to that which has
steadiness!”

-uttering these words, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the
remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

“Svaha to the eye, svaha to prosperity!”-uttering these words,
he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the
ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

“Svaha to the ear, svaha to the abode!”-uttering these words, he
offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the
ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

“Svaha to the mind, svaha to procreation (prajati)!”-uttering
these words, he offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder
adhering to the ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

“Svaha to the organ of generation!”-uttering these words, he
offers an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the
ladle drip into the paste (mantha).

3. “Svaha to fire”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation
in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the
paste.

“Svaha to the moon”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation
in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the
paste.

“Svaha to the earth”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation
in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the
paste.

“Svaha to the sky”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation
in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the
paste.

“Svaha to heaven”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation in
the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.

“Svaha to earth, sky and heaven”-uttering these words, he offers
an oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip
into the paste.

“Svaha to the brahmin”-uttering these words, he offers an
oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip
into the paste.

“Svaha to the kshatriya”-uttering these words, he offers an
oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip
into the paste.

“Svaha to the past”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation
in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the
paste.

“Svaha to the future”-uttering these words, he offers an
oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip
into the paste.

“Svaha to the universe”-uttering these words, he offers an
oblation in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip
into the paste.

“Svaha to all”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation in
the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the paste.

“Svaha to Prajapati”-uttering these words, he offers an oblation
in the fire and lets the remainder adhering to the ladle drip into the
paste.

4. Then he touches the paste, uttering the mantra: “You move as the
vital breath; you bum as fire; you are infinite as Brahman; you are
unshaken as the sky. You are the meeting-place of all. You are the sound
hing and are uttered as hing in the sacrifice by the prastotri. You are
the Udgitha and are chanted by the udgatri. You are recited by the
adhvaryu and recited back by the agnidhra. You are fully ablaze in the
moist cloud. You are omnipresent and the ruler. You are food as the moon
and light as fire. You are death and you are that in which all things
merge.”

5. Then he raises the paste, saying: “As the vital breath you know
all; we too are aware of your greatness as the vital breath. The vital
breath is the king, the ruler, the sovereign. May it make me king, ruler
and sovereign.”

6. Then he eats the paste, saying: ‘Tat saviturvarenyam’ (‘That adorable
light’)-‘The winds blow sweetly (madhu), the rivers pour forth sweetness (madhu);
may the herbs be sweet (madhu) unto us!’ ‘Svaha to the earth (Bhuh).

‘Bhargo devasya dhimahi’-(‘Of the radiant sun, We meditate upon’ )-‘May
the nights and days be sweet (madhu), may the dust of the earth be sweet (madhu),
may heaven, our father, be sweet (madhu)!’ ‘Svaha to the sky (Bhuvah).’

‘Dhiyo yo nah prachodayit’ (‘May He stimulate our intellect’)-

‘May the soma creeper be sweet (madhu) unto us, may the sun be sweet (madhu),
may the quarters be filled with sweetness (madhu) for us!’ ‘Svaha to
heaven (Svah).’

Then he repeats the whole Gayatri and all the verses about sweetness (madhumati)
and says at the end: “May I be all this! Svaha to earth, sky and
heaven.

Then he eats all that is left of the paste, washes his hands and lies down
behind the fire with his head to the east.

In the morning he salutes the sun saying: “You are the one non-dual
and best lotus of the quarters; may I be the one lotus among men.

Then he returns the way he went, sits behind the fire and repeats the line
of teachers.

7. Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, taught this to his pupil Vijasaneya
Yajnavalkya and said: “Should One pour it (the paste) even On a dry
stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

8. Then Vajasaneya Yajnavalkya taught this to his pupil Madhuka, the son
of Paingi and said: “Should one pour it even on a dry stump, branches
would grow and leaves spring forth.”

9. Then Madhuka, the son of Paingi, taught this to his pupil Chula, the
son of Bhagavitta and said: “Should one pour it even on a dry stump,
branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

10. Then Chula, the son of Bhagavitta, taught this to his disciple Janaki,
the son of Ayasthuna and said: “Should One pour it even on a dry
stump, branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

11. Then Janaki, the son of Ayasthuna, taught this to his pupil Satyakama,
the son of Jabala and said: “Should one pour it even on a dry stump,
branches would grow and leaves spring forth.”

12. And Satyakama, the son of Jabala, taught this to his pupils and said:

“Should one pour it even on a dry stump, branches would grow and
leaves spring forth.”

One must not teach this to anyone but a son or a pupil.

13. Four articles are made of fig wood: the sacrificial ladle, the bowl,
the fuel and the two mixing-rods.

The cultivated grains are ten in number: Rice, barley, sesamum, beans,
millet (anu), panic seeds (priyangu), wheat, lentils, pulse and vetch.

They should be crushed and soaked in curds, honey and clarified butter and
offered as an oblation.

Chapter
IV

Conception and Birth as Religious Rites

1. The earth is verily the essence of all these beings, water is the
essence of the earth, herbs of water, flowers of herbs, fruits of flowers,
man of fruits and semen is the essence of man.

2. Prajapati said to Himself: “Well, let Me make a firm basis for it
(semen).” So He created woman. Having created her, He placed her
below and worshipped her. Therefore one should worship a woman, placing
her below. He (Prajapati) extended His organ that projects and with it
impregnated her.

3. Her lap is the sacrificial altar, her hair the sacrificial grass, her
skin within the organ the lighted fire; the two labia of the vulva are the
two stones of the soma-press.

He who, knowing this, practises sexual intercourse wins as great a world
as is won through the Vijapeya sacrifice; he acquires for himself the
fruit of the good deeds of the woman. But he who, without knowing this,
practises sexual intercourse turns over to the woman his own good deeds.

4. Having known this, Uddalaka the son of Aruna, Naka the son of Mudgala
and Kumara-harita said: “Many mortals, brahmins only in name, perform
the sexual act without knowledge of what has been said and depart from
this world impotent and without merit.”

Even if this much semen-of one asleep or of one awake-is spilled,

5. He should touch it and repeat the following mantra:

“Whatever semen of mine has spilt on earth, whatever has flowed to
plants, whatever to water, I reclaim it.”

With these words he should take the semen with his ring finger and thumb
and rub it between his breasts or eyebrows, repeating the following
mantra:

“Let the semen return to me, let Vigour come to me again, let glow
and good fortune come to me again. May the deities who dwell in the
sacrificial fire put the semen back in its proper place.”

6. Now, if a man sees himself (his reflection) in water, he should recite
the following mantra:

“May the gods bestow on me vigour, manhood, fame, wealth and
merit.”

In praise of the wife who will bear him a son:

She (his wife) has put on the soiled clothes of impurity; she is, verily,
loveliness among women. Therefore when she has removed the clothes of
impurity and appears beautiful, he should approach her and speak to her.

7. If she does not willingly yield her body to him, he should buy her with
presents. If she is still unyielding, he should strike her with a stick or
with his hand and overcome her, repeating the following mantra:

“With power and glory I take away your glory.”

Thus she becomes discredited.

8. If she grants his desire, he should repeat the following mantra:

“With power and glory I give you glory.”

Thus they both become glorious.

9. If a man desires his wife with the thought: “May she enjoy love
with me,” then, after inserting the member in her, joining mouth to
mouth and stroking her organ, he should utter the following mantra:

“O semen, you have been produced from my every limb, especially from
my heart through the essence of food you are the essence of the limbs.
Bring this woman under my control, like a deer pierced by a poisoned
arrow.”

10. Now, the wife whom he desires with the thought: “May she not
conceive”-after inserting the member in her and joining mouth to
mouth, he should inhale and then exhale, repeating the following mantra:

“With power, with semen, I reclaim the semen from you.”

Thus she comes to be without semen.

11. Now, the wife whom he desires with the thought: “May she
conceive”-after inserting the member in her and joining mouth to
mouth, he should exhale and then inhale, repeating the following mantra:

“With power, with semen, I deposit semen in you.”

Thus she verily becomes pregnant.

12. Now, if a man’s wife has a paramour whom he detests, he should perform
the following rite in order to cast an evil spell upon him:

Let him put fire in an unbaked earthen vessel, spread stalks of reed and
kusa grass inversely and offer in the sacrificial fire the reed tips,
soaked in clarified butter, inversely, repeating the following mantra:

“You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your prana
and apana, you, ———-! (Here the name of the evil-doer should be uttered).
You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your sons and
cattle, you, ——–! You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take
away your Vedic rites and those done according to the Smritis, you,
——–! You have made a libation in my kindled fire! I take away your
hopes and expectations, you, ———

He whom a brahmin who knows this rite curses, departs from this world
impotent and shorn of merit. Therefore let no one even joke with the wife
of a Vedic scholar who knows this rite; for he who has this knowledge is a
dangerous enemy.

13. If a man’s wife has the monthly sickness, she should for three days
drink water from a cup made of bell metal. Let no sudra man or woman touch
her. After three nights she should bathe, put on a new cloth and her
husband should make her thresh rice.

14. If a man wishes that a son with a fair complexion should be born to
him, that he should study one Veda and that he should attain a full term
of life, then they (husband and wife) should have rice cooked in milk and
eat it with clarified butter. Thus they should be able to beget such a
son.

15. If a man wishes that a son with a tawny or brown complexion should be
born to him, that he should study two Vedas and that he should attain a
full term of life, then they should have rice cooked in curds and eat it
with clarified butter. Thus they should be able to beget such a son.

16. If a man wishes that a son with a dark complexion and red eyes should
be born to him, that he should study three Vedas and that he should attain
a full term of life, then they should have rice cooked in water and eat it
with clarified butter. Thus they should be able to beget such a son.

17. If a man wishes that a daughter should be born to him who will be a
scholar and attain a full term of life, then they should have rice cooked
with sesamum and eat it with clarified butter. Thus they should be able to
beget such a daughter.

18. If a man wishes that a son should be born to him who will be a famous
scholar, frequenting assemblies and speaking delightful words, a student
of all the Vedas and an enjoyer of the full term of life, he should have
rice cooked with the meat of a young bull or of one more advanced in years
and he and his wife should eat it with clarified butter. Then they should
be able to beget such a son.

19. Now, towards morning he purifies the clarified butter according to the
rules of Sthalipaka and offers Sthalipaka oblations repeatedly, saying:

“Svaha to fire! Svaha to Anumati! Svaha to the radiant sun, who
produces infallible results!”

Having made the offering, he takes up the remnant of the cooked food, eats
part of it and gives the rest to his wife. Then he washes his hands, fills
the water-vessel and sprinkles her thrice with water, uttering once this
mantra:

“Get up from here, O Visvavasu! Seek another young woman, a wife with
her husband.”

20. Then he embraces her, repeating the following mantra:

I am the vital breath and you are speech. You are speech and I am the
vital breath. I am Saman and you are Rig; I am heaven and you are earth.
Come, let us strive together so that we may have a male child.”

21. Then he spreads apart her thighs, repeating the following mantra:

“Spread yourselves apart, Heaven and Earth.”

Inserting the member in her and joining mouth to mouth, he strokes her
three times from head to foot, repeating the following mantra:

“Let Vishnu make the womb capable of bearing a son! Let Tvashtra
shape the various limbs of the child! Let Prajapati pour in the semen! Let
Dhatra support the embryo! O Sinivali, make her conceive; O goddess whose
glory is widespread, make her conceive! May the two Atvins, garlanded with
lotuses, support the embryo!

22. “Let the two Asvins churn the womb with the two golden arani
sticks! I am placing a seed in your womb to be delivered in the tenth
month. As the earth has fire in its womb, as heaven is pregnant with the
sun, as the quarters are impregnated by air, so I am impregnating you by
placing this seed in your womb.”

After the reciting of the mantra, he utters his own name and that of his
wife and places the seed.

23. When she is about to deliver the child, he sprinkles her with water,
repeating the following mantra:

“As the wind agitates a pond on every side, even so let your foetus
stir and come out along with the chorion. Indra (prana) made a path when
the seed entered the womb. O Indra, follow that path and come out with the
foetus and the covering and cause also the after birth to come forth with
the babe.”

24. When the son is born, he should light a fire, take the child on his
lap, put a mixture of curds and clarified butter in a bell-metal cup and
offer oblations in the fire repeatedly, uttering the mantra:

“May I increase as the son in my own home and support a thousand
people! May the Goddess of Fortune never depart, with children and cattle,
from his line! Svaha! The vital breath that is in me, I mentally offer to
you. Svaha! If I have done anything too much or too little in this
ceremony, may the all-knowing and highly beneficent fire make it just
right and proper for me. Svaha!”

25. The, putting his month to the child’s right ear, he should say thrice:
“Speech! Speech!” Next he would mix together curds, honey and
clarified butter and feed the child with a golden stick which is not
placed inside the month, saying these mantras:

“I put the earth (Bhuh) into you; I put the sky (Bhuvah) into you; I
put heaven (Svah) into you. The whole of earth, sky and heaven I put into
you.”

26. Then he (the father) gives him (the son) a name: ‘You are the Veda
(knowledge).” That is his secret name.

27. Then he presents him to the mother to give him her breast, uttering
the mantra:

“O Sarasvati, that breast of thine which is fruitful, the sustainer
of all, full of milk, the bestower of wealth and generous and by which
thou nourishest all who are worthy-transfer that breast here to my wife,
for my child to suck.

28. Then he addresses the mother of the child thus:

‘You are the adorable Arundhati, the wife of Vasishtha and with me, who am
a man, as your partner you have brought forth a male child. Be the mother
of many male children, for you have given us a son.

Chapter
V

The Line of Teachers

1. Now the line of teachers:

The son of Pautimashi received this knowledge from the son of Katyayani.
The son of Katyayani from the son of Gautami. The son of Gautami from the
son of Bharadvaji. The son of Bharadvaji from the son of Parasari. The son
of Parasari from the son of Aupasvasti. The son of Aupasvasti from the son
of another Parasari. The son of this Parasari from the son of Katyayani.
The son of Katyayani from the son of Kausiki. The son of Kausiki from the
son of Alambi and the son of Vaiyaghrapadi. The son of Vaiyaghrapadi from
the son of Kanvi and the son of Kapi. The son of Kapi

2. From the son of Atreyi. The son of Atreyi from the son of Gautami. The
son of Gautami from the son of Bharadvaji. The son of Bharadvaji from the
son of Parasari. The son of Parasari from the son of Vatsi. The son of
Vatsi from the son of another Parasan.. The son of this Parasan from the
son of Varkaruni. The son of Varkaruni from the son of another Varkaruni.
The son of this Varkaruni from the son of Artabbagi. The son of Artabbagi
from the son of Saungi. The son of Saungi from the son of Sankriti. The
son of Sankriti from the son of Alambayani. The son of Alambayani from the
son of Alambi. The son of Alambi from the son of Jayanti. The son of
Jayanti from the son of Mandukayani. The son of Mandukayani from the son
of Manduki. The son of Manduki from the son of Sandili. The son of Sandili
from the son of Rathitari. The son of Rathitari from the son of Bhaluki.
The son of Bhaluki from the two sons of Kraunchiki. The two sons of
Kraunchiki from the son of Vaidabhriti. The son of Vaidabhriti from the
son of Karsakeyi. The son of Karsakeyi from the son of Prachinayogi. The
son of Prachinayogi from the son of Sanjivi. The son of Sanjivi from
Asurivasin, who was the son of Prasni. The son of Prasni from Asurayana.
Asurayana from Asuri. Asuri

3. From Yajnavalkya. Yajnavalkya from Uddalaka. Uddalaka from Aruna. Aruna
from Upavesi. Upavesi from Kusri. Kusri from Vajasravas. Vajasravas from
Jihvavat, the son of Badhyoga. Jihvavat, the son of Badhyoga, from Asita,
the son of Varshagana. Asita, the son of Varshagana, from Harita Kasyapa.
Harita Kasyapa from Silpa Kasyapa. Silpa Kasyapa from Kasyapa, the son of
Nidhruva. Kasyapa, the son of Nidhruva, from Vach. Vach from Ambhini.
Ambhini from the sun. These white Yajuses (sacrificial formulas not
vitiated by human blemishes) are explained by Yajnavalkya, belonging to
the Vajasaneyi school.

4. The line of teachers is the same up to the son of Sanjivi. The
son of Sanjivi received this knowledge from Mandukayani. Mandukayani from
Mandavya. Mandavya from Kautsa. Kautsa from Mahitthi. Mahitthi from
Vamakakshiyana. Vamakakshiyana from Sandilya. Sandilya from Vatsya. Vatsya
from Kusri. Kusri from Yajnavachas, the son of Rajastamba. Yajnavachas,
the son of Rajastamba, from Tura, the son of Kavashi. Tura, the son of
Kavashi, from Prajapati (Hiranyagarbha). Prajapati received this knowledge
from his relationship to Brahman (the Vedas). Brahman is self-existent.
Salutation to Brahman.

The
Peace Chant

Om. That is full; this is full. This fullness has been projected from that
fullness. When this fullness merges in that fullness, all that remains is
fullness.

 

Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!




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BRAND: A Second Coming chronicles actor / comedian / activist Russell Brand on his journey from addict, self-proclaimed narcissist and Hollywood star living in the fast-lane to his current, and unexpected, role as political disruptor & newfound hero to the underserved. source