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meditation

 

 

 



Brihadaranyaka
Upanishad


 

Part
One

 

 

Chapter I

Meditation on the Horse-sacrifice



1. Om, verily, the head of the sacrificial horse is the dawn, its eye the
sun, its vital breath the wind, its open mouth the Vaisvanara fire and the
trunk of the sacrificial horse is the year. The back is heaven, the belly
the intermediate region, the hoof the earth, the sides the four quarters,
the ribs the intermediate quarters, the limbs the seasons, the joints the
months and half-months, the feet the days and nights, the bones the stars,
the flesh the clouds. Its half-digested food is the sand, the
blood-vessels the rivers, the liver and lungs the mountains, the hair the
herbs and trees. The fore part of the horse is the rising sun and the
hinder part the setting sun. Its yawn is lightning, its shaking of the
body is thunder, its water is rain and its neighing is indeed voice.

2. The day, verily, is the golden cup called mahiman, in front of the
horse, which arose pointing it out. Its source is the eastern sea. The
night, verily, is the silver cup called mahiman, behind the horse, which
arose pointing it out. Its source is the western sea. These two vessels
appeared at either end of the horse. As a racer the horse carried the
gods; as a stallion, the gandharvas; as a runner, the demons; as a horse,
men. The sea is its stable and the sea, its source.

Chapter
II-The Process of Creation

1. In the beginning there was nothing whatsoever in the universe. By
Death, indeed, all this was covered-by hunger, for hunger is, verily,
death. “Let Me have a mind,” was His desire and He created the
mind. Then He moved about, worshipping Himself. From Him, thus
worshipping, water was produced. “Verily,” Death though,
“while I was worshipping, water was produced”; that is why the
Arka (fire used in the Horse-sacrifice) is so called. Surely, happiness
comes to him who knows how the fire came to be called arka.

2. Water, verily, is arka. What was then like froth on the water became
solidified; that was earth. After the earth was created, Hiranyagarbha was
tired. From Him, thus fatigued and heated, came forth His essence as
brightness. That was Fire.

3. He divided Himself into three: the sun one-third and the air one-third.
Thus Prana is divided into three. His head is the east and His arms are
that (the north-east) and that (the south-east). His hinder part is the
west and His two hip-bones are that (the north-west) and that (the
south-west). His sides are the south and the north, His back is heaven,
His belly is the intermediate region and His chest is the earth. Thus He
stands firm on water. He who knows this stands firm wherever he goes.

4. He desired: “Let a second self be born of Me,” and He (Death
or Hunger) brought about the union of speech with the mind. What was the
seed there became the year. Prior to that there had been no year. He
(Death) bore him (the year) for as long as a year and after that time
projected him. Then, when he was born, Death opened His mouth to devour
him. He (the child) cried: “Bhan!” and that, indeed, became
speech.

5. He thought: “If I kill him, I shall have but very little food,”
and through the union of that speech and that mind He brought forth all
this, whatever there is: the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda, the
metres, the sacrifices, men and animals. Whatever He brought forth He
resolved to eat. Verily, because He eats everything, therefore is Aditi
(Death) called Aditi. He who knows why Aditi came to have this name of
Aditi becomes the eater of everything and everything becomes his food.

6. He desired: “Let me sacrifice again with the great
sacrifice.” He was tired and he practiced austerities. From Him thus
fatigued and heated, His fame and vigour departed. The pranas (organs) are
verily fame and vigour. When the pranas went out His body began to swell,
but the mind was set on the body.

7. He desired: “Let this body of Mine be fit for a sacrifice and let
Me be embodied through this.” Thinking thus, He entered the body.
Because the body swelled (asvat), therefore it came to be called horse (asva).
And because it became fit for sacrifice (medhya), therefore the
Horse-sacrifice came to be known as Asvamedha. He who knows this verily
knows the Horse-sacrifice.

Prajapati, desiring again to sacrifice with the great sacrifice, imagined
Himself as the horse and letting the horse remain free, He reflected on
it. At the end of a year he sacrificed it to Himself and dispatched the
other animals to the gods. Therefore priests even now sacrifice to
Prajapati the sanctified horse dedicated to all the gods.

Verily, the sun who shines yonder is the Horse-sacrifice. His body is the
year. This earthly fire is the arka (sacrificial fire), whose limbs are
these worlds. So these two, fire and the sun, are the arka and the
Asvamedha (Horse-sacrifice). These two, again, become the same god, Death.
He who knows this conquers further death; death cannot overcome him; death
becomes his self; and he becomes one with these deities.

Chapter
III-The Prana:

Its Glories and Redeeming Power

1. There were two classes of Prajapati’s sons: the gods (devas) and the
demons (asuras). Naturally, the gods were few and the demons many. They
struggled with one another for mastery of these worlds. Being overwhelmed
by the demons, the gods said: “Well, let Us overcome the demons at
the sacrifice (jyotishtoma) by means of the Udgitha.”

2. They said to the organ of speech: “Chant the Udgitha for us.”
“So be it,” said speech and chanted for them. Whatever enjoyment
common to all comes from the organ of speech, it secured for the gods by
chanting, while the enjoyment derived from the fine utterance of the words
it utilized for itself. Now, the demons knew that through this chanter the
gods would overcome them. They charged at it (speech) and pierced it with
evil. That evil is what is found today when one speaks improperly; that is
that evil.

3. Then they said to the organ of smell: “Chant the Udgitha for
us.” “So be it,” said the organ and chanted for them.
Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the nose, it secured for the
gods by chanting, while the enjoyment derived from fine smelling it
utilized for itself. Now, the demons knew that through this chanter the
gods would overcome them. They charged at it and pierced it with evil.
That evil is what is found today when one smells improper things; that is
that evil.

4. Then they said to the organ of Seeing: “Chant the Udgitha for
us.” “So be it,” said the organ and chanted for them.
Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the eye, it secured for the
gods by chanting, while the enjoyment derived from fine seeing it utilized
for itself. Now, the demons knew that through this chanter the gods would
overcome them. They charged at it and pierced it with evil. That evil is
what is found today when one sees improper things; that is that evil.

5. Then they said to the organ of hearing: “Chant the Udgitha for
us.” “So be it,” said the organ and chanted for them.
Whatever enjoyment common to all comes from the ear, it secured for the
gods by chanting, while the enjoyment derived from fine hearing it
utilized for itself. Now, the demons knew that through this chanter the
gods would overcome them. They charged at it and pierced it with evil.
That evil is what is found today when one hears improper things; that is
that evil.

6. Then they said to the mind: “Chant the Udgitha for us.”
“So be it,” said the mind and chanted for them. Whatever
enjoyment common to all comes from the mind, it secured for the gods by
chanting, while the enjoyment derived from fine thinking it utilized for
itself. Now, the demons knew that through this chanter the gods would
overcome them. They charged at it and pierced it with evil. That evil is
what is found today when one thinks improperly; that is that evil.

Likewise they also touched these other deities with evil-smote them with
evil.

7. Then they said to the vital breath in the mouth: “Chant the
Udgitha for us.” “So be it,” said the vital breath and
chanted for them. The demons knew that through this chanter the gods would
overcome them. They charged at it, intending to pierce it with evil. But
as a clod of earth, hitting a stone, is scattered, even so they were
scattered in all directions, crushed, and completely destroyed. Thereupon
the gods became established in their true selves and the demons perished.
He who knows this becomes his true self, and his spiteful kinsman
perishes.

8. Then the organs said: “Where is that which joined us to our true
selves?” After deliberation they discovered that it was here, within
the mouth (asye). Hence the vital breath (prana) is called ayasya and
also, because it is the essence (rasa) of the limbs (anga) of the body,
angirasa.

9. That deity is called “dur,” because death is far (dur) from
it. From him who knows this, death is far away.

10. That deity took away death, the evil of these gods and carried it to
where the end of the quarters is. There it deposited their evil. Therefore
let no one go to a person of that region, or to the country beyond the
border, lest he should meet there with evil, with death.

11. That deity, after taking away the death-the evil-of the gods, carried
them beyond death.

12. First of all, it carried the organ of speech, which is the foremost
organ. When the organ of speech was freed from death it became fire. That
fire, having transcended death, shines beyond its reach.

13-15. Then it carried the organ of smell. When it was freed from death it
became air (Vayu). That air, having transcended death, blows beyond its
reach.

Then it carried the organ of sight. When it was freed from death it became
the sun (Surya). That sun, having transcended death, shines beyond its
reach.

Then it carried the organ of hearing. When it was freed from death, it
became the quarters (Disah). Those quarters, having transcended death,
remain beyond its reach.

16. Then it carried the mind. When the mind was freed from death it became
the moon (Chandra). That moon, having transcended death, shines beyond its
reach. Thus, verily, that deity carries beyond death him who knows this.

17. Next it (the vital breath) obtained eatable food for itself by
chanting. For whatever food is eaten, is eaten by the vital breath alone,
and it (the vital breath) rests on that (the food).

18. The gods said to the vital breath: “Verily, just this much is all
the food there is and you have secured it for yourself by chanting. Now
give us, please, a share of this food.”

“Then sit around facing me.”

“So be it.”

They sat down around the vital breath. That is why whatever food one eats
through the vital breath satisfies the organs.

So do his relatives sit around facing him who knows this; he becomes the
supporter of his kinsmen, the greatest among them and their leader, a good
eater of food and their lord.

Whoever, among his kinsmen, the greatest among them and their leader, a
good eater of food and their lord.

Whoever, among his kinsmen, desires to be a rival of the man who has this
knowledge is not able to support his dependents. But, on the other hand,
he who follows him (the knower of the vital breath) and who, following
him, desires to support his dependents is certainly able to do so.

19. It is called ayasa angirasa, for it is the essence (rasa) of the limbs
(anga). Yes, the prana is the essence of the limbs. From whichever limb
the vital breath departs, that limb withers right there; therefore it is
verily the essence of the limbs.

20. It is also Brihaspati (lord of the Rig-Veda). Speech is Brihati (Rig)
and the vital breath is its lord (pati). Therefore it is called Brihaspati.

21. It is also the Brahmanaspati (lord of the Yajur-Veda). Speech is
Brahman (Yajur), and the vital breath is its lord (pati). Therefore it is
called Brahmanaspati.

22. Prana is Saman, too. Speech is, verily, sa and this (prana) is ama.
Saman (the chant of the Sama-Veda) is known by that name because it is sa
(speech) and ama (prana). Or because it (prana) is equal (sama) to a white
ant, equal to a mosquito, equal to an elephant, equal to these three
worlds, nay, equal to this universe; therefore it (prana) is indeed the
Sama-Veda. He who knows this vital breath to be such attains union with it
or lives in the same world with it.

23. And it is also the Udgitha. The vital breath is verily ut, for by the
vital breath all this universe is upheld (uttabdha); and speech is githa
(song). And because it is ut and githa, therefore it is Udgitha.

24. Regarding this there is also the following anecdote: Brahmadatta, the
great-grandson of Chikitana, while drinking king [soma], said: “Let
this soma strike off my head if I say that the ayasya angirasa chanted the
Udgitha through any other means than this vital breath and speech.”
Surely he chanted through speech and the vital breath.

25. He who knows the wealth of this saman (Vital breath) obtains wealth.
Tone, indeed, is its wealth. Therefore let one who is going to perform the
sacrificial work as a priest desire that his voice may have a good tone
and let him perform the sacrifice through that voice with a good tone.
Therefore people desire to see at a sacrifice a priest with a good voice,
like one who has wealth. He who thus knows what is the wealth of the saman
obtains wealth.

26. He who knows the suvarna (gold) of the saman (vital breath) obtains
gold. Tone is verily its gold. He who thus knows what is the gold of the
saman obtains gold.

27. He who knows the support of the saman (vital breath) gets a support.
Speech Verily is its support. For, supported in speech, the vital breath
is transformed into a chant. Some say the support is in food (the body).

28. Next follows the edifying repetition (abhyaroha) only of the hymns
called pavamanas. The priest called prastotri indeed chants the saman.
While he chants it, let the sacrificer recite these [Yajur verses]:

“Lead me from the unreal to the real. From darkness lead me to light.
From death lead me to immortality.”

When the mantra (verse) says: “Lead me from the unreal to the
real,” “the unreal” means death, and the “real,”
immortality; so it says, “From death lead me to immortality,”
that is to say, “Make me immortal.”

When it says: “From darkness lead me to light,”
“darkness” means death, and “light,” immortality; so
it says: “From death lead me to immortality,” that is to say,
“Make me immortal.”

In the verse: “From death lead me to immortality,” there is
nothing that is hidden.

Then come the remaining hymns, with which, by singing them, [the chanter]
should obtain food for himself. Therefore while they are being chanted let
the sacrificer ask for a boon-anything that he desires. Whatever objects
this chanter, endowed with such knowledge, desires for himself or for the
sacrificer, he obtains by his chanting. This [meditation] by itself wins
the world (Hiranyagarbha). He who thus knows the saman (the prana, or
vital breath)-for him there is no fear of not being admitted into that
world.

Chapter
IV

The Creation and Its Cause

1. In the beginning, this universe was the self (Viraj) alone, in the
shape of a person. He reflected and saw nothing else but His self. He
first said: “I am He.” Therefore He came to be known by the name
I (Aham). Hence, even now, when a person is addressed, he first says:
“It is I,” and then says whatever other name he may have. And
because He, before (purva) the whole group of aspirants, burnt (aushat)
all evils, therefore He is called Purusha. He who knows this verily burns
up him who wishes to be Viraj in advance of him.

2. He was afraid. Therefore people still are afraid when alone. He
thought: “Since there is nothing else but Myself, what am I afraid
of?” Thereupon His fears were gone; for what was there to fear?
Assuredly, it is from a second entity that fear arises.

3. He was not at all happy. Therefore a person even today is not happy
when alone. He desired a mate. He became the size of a man and wife in
close embrace. He divided this body into two. From that division arose
husband (pati) and wife (patni). Therefore, as Yajnavalkya said, the body
before one accepts a wife is one half of oneself, like the half of a split
pea. Therefore this space is indeed filled by the wife. He was united with
her. From that union human beings were born.

4. She reflected: “How can he unite with me after having produced me
from himself? Well, let me hide myself.” She became a cow, the other
(Manu) became a bull and was united with her; from that union cows were
born. The one became a mare, the other became a stallion; the one became a
she-ass, the other became a he-ass and was united with her; from that
union one-hoofed animals were born. The one became a she-goat, the other
became a he-goat; the one became a hew, the other became a ram and was
united with her; from that union goats and sheep were born. Thus, indeed,
he produced everything that exists in pairs, down to the ants.

5. He (Viraj) realized: “Indeed, I am the creation, for I produced
all this.” Therefore He became the creation. He who knows this
becomes a creator in this creation of Viraj.

6. Then He (Viraj) rubbed back and forth thus and produced fire from its
source: the mouth and the hands. Therefore both the hands and mouth are
hairless inside.

When they (the priests) speak of particular gods, saying: “Sacrifice
to him,” “Sacrifice to that one,” they are mistaken; for
these are all His manifestations: He Himself is all the gods.

Now, whatever is liquid, He produced from semen; and that is soma. This
universe is indeed this much: food and the eater of food. Soma is food;
and fire, the eater of food. This is the highest creation of Viraj, that
He projected the gods, who are even superior to Him. This is the highest
creation because He, although mortal Himself, manifested the immortal. And
he who knows this verily becomes a creator in this highest creation of
Viraj.

7. Now, all this universe was then undifferentiated. It became
differentiated by name and form: it was known by such and such a name, and
such and such a form. Thus to this day this universe is differentiated by
name and form; so it is said. “He has such a name and such a
form.”

This Self has entered into these bodies up to the very tips of the nails,
as a razor lies hidden in its case, or as fire, which sustains the world,
lies hidden in its source. People do not see the Self, for when viewed in
parts It is incomplete: when breathing, It is called the vital breath
(prana); when speaking, the organ of speech; when seeing, the eye; when
hearing, the ear; when thinking, the mind. These are merely Its names
according to Its functions. He who meditates on one or another of Its
aspects does not know, for It is then incomplete: the Self is separated
from Its totality by being associated with a single characteristic.

The Self alone is to be meditated upon, for in It all these become
unified. Of all these, this Self alone should be known, for one knows all
these through It, just as one may find an animal which is lost through its
footprints. He who thus knows the Self obtains fame and association with
dear ones.

8. This Self is dearer than a son, dearer than wealth, dearer than
everything else, because It is innermost. If one holding the Self dear
were to say to a person who speaks of anything other than the Self as
dear, that he, the latter, will lose what he holds dear-and the former is
certainly competent to do so-it will indeed come true.

One should meditate upon the Self alone as dear. He who meditates upon the
Self alone as dear-what he holds dear will not perish.

9. They say: “Since men think that by the Knowledge of Brahman they
become all, what, pray, was it that Brahman knew by which It became
all?”

10. This self was indeed Brahman in the beginning. It knew itself only as
“I am Brahman.” Therefore it became all. And whoever among the
gods had this enlightenment, also became That Brahman. It is the same with
the seers (rishis), the same with men. The seer Vamadeva, having realized
this self as That, came to know: “I was Manu and the sun.” And
to this day, whoever in a like manner knows the self as “I am
Brahman,” becomes all this universe. Even the gods cannot prevent his
becoming this, for he has become their Self.

Now, if a man worships another deity, thinking: “He is one and I am
another,” he does not know. He is like an animal to the gods. As many
animals serve a man, so does each man serve the gods. Even if one animal
is taken away, it causes anguish to the owner; how much more so when many
are taken away! Therefore it is not pleasing to the gods that men should
know this.

11. In the beginning this (the kshatriya and other castes) was indeed
Brahman, one only without a second. He, being one, did not flourish. He
projected, further, an excellent form, kshatriyahood-those kshatriyas
(rulers) among the gods: Indra, Varuna, Soma (Moon), Rudra, Parjanya, Yama,
Mrityu (Death), and Isana. Therefore there is none higher than the
kshatriyas. Thus at the Rajasuya sacrifice, the brahmin sits below and
worships the kshatriya. He confers that glory on kshatriyahood alone. But
brahminhood is nevertheless the source of kshatriyahood. Therefore even
though the king is exalted in the sacrifice, at the end of it he resorts
to brahminhood as his source. He who slights a brahmin strikes at his own
source. He becomes more evil, as one who slights his superior.

12. Yet He (Viraj) did not flourish. He projected the Vaisya caste-those
classes of gods who are designated in groups: the Vasus, Rudras, Adityas,
Visve-devas and Maruts.

13. Still He did not flourish. He projected the sudra caste-Pushan. This
earth is Verily Pushan (the nourisher); for it nourishes all that exists.

14. Yet He did not flourish. He projected, further, that excellent form,
justice (dharrna). This justice is the controller of the kshatriya.
Therefore there is nothing higher than justice. So even a weak man hopes
to defeat a stronger man through justice, as one does with the help of a
king. Verily, that which is justice is truth. Therefore if a man speaks
the truth, they say he speaks what is just, and if he speaks what is just,
they say he speaks the truth; for justice alone is both these.

15. So these four castes were projected: the brahmin: the kshatriya, the
vaisya, and the sudra. Among the gods Prajapati became a brahmin as fire,
and among men He became the brahmin. He became a kshatriya among men
through the divine kshatriyas, a vaisya through the divine vaisyas, and a
sudra through the divine sudras. Therefore people desire to attain the
results of their rites among the gods through fire, and among men as a
brahmin. For Prajapati directly projected Himself as these two forms.

Now, if a man departs from this world without realizing his own World (the
Self), It, being unknown, does not protect him-as the Vedas, unrecited, or
as a deed unaccomplished, do not protect him. Nay, even if one who does
not know It (the Self) should perform here on earth a great many
meritorious acts, those acts will in the end surely perish for him. One
should meditate only upon the World called the Self. He who meditates upon
the World called the Self-his work does not perish; for from this very
Self he projects whatever he desires.

16. Now, this self (the ignorant person) is an object of enjoyment (lokah)
to all beings. In so far as he offers oblations in the fire and performs
sacrifices, he becomes an object of enjoyment to the gods. In so far as he
studies the Vedas, he becomes an object of enjoyment to the rishis. In so
far as he makes offerings to the Manes and desires children, he becomes an
object of enjoyment to the Manes. In so far as he gives shelter and food
to men, he becomes an object of enjoyment to men. In so far as he gives
fodder and water to the animals, he becomes an object of enjoyment to the
animals. In so far as beasts and birds and even ants find a living in his
home, he becomes an object of enjoyment to these. Just as one wishes no
injury to one’s body, so do all beings wish no injury to him who has this
knowledge. All this, indeed, has been known and well investigated.

17. In the beginning this aggregate of desirable objects was but the self,
one only. He cherished the desire: “Let me have a wife, so that I may
be born as the child; and let me have wealth, so that I may perform
rites.” This much, indeed, is the range of desire; even if one
wishes, one cannot get more than this. Therefore, to this day, a man who
is single desires: “Let me have a wife, so that I may be born as the
child; and let me have wealth, so that I may perform rites.” So long
as he does not obtain each one of these, he thinks he is incomplete.

Now, his completeness can also come in this way: The mind is his self,
speech his wife, the vital breath his child, the eye his human wealth, for
he finds it with the eye; the ear his divine wealth, for he hears it with
the ear; the body his instrument of rites, for he performs rites through
the body. So this sacrifice has five factors-the animals have five
factors, men have five factors and all this that exists has five factors.
He who knows this obtains all this.

Chapter
V

Manifestations of Prajapati

1. The following are the mantras:

“I shall now disclose that the father produced seven kinds of food
through meditation and rites. One is common to all eaters. Two he assigned
to the gods. Three he designed for himself. And one he gave to the
animals. On it (food) rests everything-whatsoever breathes and whatsoever
breathes not. Why are not these foods exhausted although they are always
being eaten? He who knows the cause of this inexhaustibility of the food
eats food with pre-eminence (pratika). He obtains identity with the gods
and lives on nectar.”

2. When it is said: “That the father produced seven kinds of food
through meditation and rites,” the statement means that the father
indeed produced them through meditation and rites. When it is said:
“One is common to all eaters,” it means that the food which is
eaten is that which is common to all. He who appropriates this food is
never free from evil, for this is, verily, the general food. When it is
said: “Two he assigned to the gods,” the statement means
oblations made in the fire and presents offered otherwise to the gods.
Therefore people make oblations in the fire and offer presents otherwise
to the gods. Some, however, say that the two foods refer to the new-moon
and full-moon sacrifices. Therefore one should not engage in sacrifices
for material ends. When it is said: “One he gave to the
animals,” the statement refers to milk; for at first men and animals
live on milk alone. That is why they first make a new-born babe lick
melted butter or they put it to the breast. And they speak of the new-born
calf as not yet eating grass. When it is said: “On it rests
everything-whatsoever breathes and whatsoever breathes not,” it means
that everything rests on milk, all that breathes and breathes not. It is
further said in another Brahmana that by making offerings of milk in the
fire for a year one overcomes further death; but one should not think
thus. For he who knows this overcomes further death the very day he makes
the offering, because he offers all eatable food to the gods. When it is
asked: “Why are not these foods exhausted although they are always
being eaten?” the answer is that the eater is indeed the cause of
this inexhaustibility, for he produces this food again and again. When it
is said: “He who knows the cause of this inexhaustibility,” the
statement means that the eater is indeed the cause of this
inexhaustibility, for he produces this food through meditation and rites.
If he did not do this the food would be exhausted. When it is said:
“He eats food with pratika,” the word pratika means
pre-eminence; hence the meaning is that he eats food pre-eminently. The
statement: “He obtains identity with the gods and lives on
nectar,” is a eulogy.

3. “Three he designed for himself”-that is to say, the mind, the
organ of speech and the vital breath; these he designed for himself. They
say: “My mind was elsewhere, I did not see it; my mind was elsewhere,
I did not hear it.” It is clear that a man sees with his mind and
hears with his mind. Desire, determination, doubt, faith, lack of faith,
steadfastness, lack of steadfastness, shame, intelligence and fear-all
this is truly the mind. Even if one is touched from behind, one knows it
through the mind; therefore the mind exists.

Whatever sound there is, it is just the organ of speech; for it serves to
determine a thing, but it cannot itself be revealed.

The prana, apana, vyana, udana, samana and ana-all these are but the vital
breath (prana). This body (atma) consists of these-the organ of speech,
the mind and the vital breath.

4. These verily are the three worlds: the organ of speech is this world
(the earth), the mind is the intermediary world (the sky) and the vital
breath is that world (heaven).

5. These verily are the three Vedas: the organ of speech is the Rig-Veda,
the mind is the Yajur-Veda and the vital breath is the Sama-Veda.

6. These verily are the gods, the Manes and men: the organ of speech is
the gods, the mind is the Manes and the vital breath is men.

7. These verily are father, mother and child: the mind is the father, the
organ of speech is the mother and the vital force is the child.

8-10. These verily are what is known, what is to be known and what is
unknown. Whatever is known is a form of the organ of speech, for it is the
knower. The organ of speech protects him who knows its different
manifestations by becoming that which is known).

Whatever is to be known is a form of the mind, for the mind is what is to
be known. The mind protects him who knows this by becoming that which is
to be known.

Whatever is unknown is a form of the vital breath, for the vital breath is
what is unknown. The vital breath protects him who knows this by becoming
that which is unknown.

11. The earth is the body of that organ of speech and this fire is its
luminous organ. And as far as the organ of speech extends, so far extends
the earth and so far extends fire.

12. Now, heaven is the body of this mind and that sun yonder is its
luminous organ. And as far as the mind extends, so far extends the earth
and so far extends fire. The two (fire and the sun) were united and from
that was born the vital breath. It (the vital breath) is the supreme Lord
(Indra). It is without a rival. A second being is, indeed, a rival. He who
knows this has no rival.

13. Next, water is the body of this vital breath and that moon yonder is
its luminous organ. And as far as the vital breath extends, so far extends
water and so far extends the moon. These are all equal, all infinite. He
who meditates upon them as finite wins a finite world, but he who
meditates upon them as infinite wins an infinite world.

14. That Prajapati, represented by the year, consists of sixteen parts.
The nights and days are fifteen of his parts and the constant point is the
sixteenth. He as the moon is increased and decreased by the nights and
days. Through the sixteenth part he permeates all living beings as the
new-moon night and rises the following morning. Therefore, in honour of
this deity, on this night let no one cut off the breath of any breathing
being, not even of a lizard.

15. Verily, the person who knows this is himself that Prajapati who is
endowed with sixteen parts and who is represented by the year. Wealth
constitutes fifteen of his parts and the body is his sixteenth part. He is
increased and decreased by that wealth. This body is the nave and wealth
is the felloe. Therefore even if a man loses everything, but lives in his
body, people say that he has lost only his felloe which can be restored
again.

16. Now, these are, verily, the three worlds: the world of men, the world
of the Manes and the world of the gods. The world of men can be gained
through a son only and by no other rite; the world of the Manes through
rites; and the world of the gods through meditation. The world of the gods
is the best of the worlds. Therefore they praise meditation.

17. Now therefore follows the entrusting: When a man thinks he is about to
die, he says to his son: “You are Brahman, you are the sacrifice and
you are the world.” The son replies: “I am Brahman, I am the
sacrifice, I am the world.”

The Sruti explains the thoughts of the father:

“Whatever has been studied by me (the father) is all unified in the
word Brahman. Whatever sacrifices have been made by me (the father) are
all unified in the word sacrifice. And whatever worlds were to be; won by
me (the father) are all unified in the word world. All this it indeed this
much. He (the son), being all this, will protect me from the ties of this
world.” Therefore they speak of a son who is well instructed as being
conducive to the winning of the world; and therefore a father instructs
him.

When a father who knows this departs from this world, he-along with his
own organ of speech, mind and vital breath-penetrates his son. If, through
a lapse, any duty has been left undone by him, the son exonerates him from
all that; therefore he is called a son. The father remains in this world
through the son. The divine and immortal organ of speech, mind and vital
breath enter into him (the father).

18. The divine organ of speech from the earth and fire enters into him.
That is the divine organ of speech through which whatever he says is
fulfilled.

19. The divine mind from heaven and the sun permeates him. That is the
divine mind through which he becomes joyful only and grieves no more.

20. The divine vital breath from water and the moon permeates him. And,
verily, that is the divine vital breath which, whether moving or not
moving, neither feels pain nor is injured. He who knows this becomes the
self of all beings. As is this deity (Hiranyagarbha), so is he. And as all
beings honour this deity, so do they honour him. Howsoever creatures may
grieve, that grief of theirs remains with them but only merit goes to him.
No demerit ever goes to the gods.

21. Next follows the consideration of the vow (meditative worship):

Prajapati projected the organs. They, when they were projected, quarrelled
with one another. The organ of speech resolved: “I will go on
speaking”; the eye: “I will go on seeing”; the ear: “I
will go on hearing.” So did the other organs, according to their
functions. Death, having taken the form of weariness, laid hold of them-it
overtook them and having overtaken them, restrained them. Therefore does
the organ of speech become tired and so do the eye and the ear. But death
did not overtake the vital breath (prana) in the body. The other organs
resolved to know it and said: “This is verily the greatest among us;
whether moving or not moving, it neither feels pain nor is injured. Well
then, let us assume its form.” They all assumed its form. Therefore
they are called pranas after it.

In whatever family there is a man who knows this-that family they call by
his name. And whoever competes with one who knows this, shrivels and after
shrivelling, in the end dies. This is with regard to the body.

22. Now with regard to the gods. Fire resolved: “I will go on
burning”; the sun: “I will go on giving heat”; the moon:
“I will go on shining.” And so did the other gods, according to
their functions. As is the vital breath in the body among the organs, so
is air (vayu) among the gods. The other gods fade, but not air. Air is the
deity that never sets.

23. Now there is this verse (sloka):

The gods observed the vow of that from which the sun rises and in which it
sets. This vow is followed today and this will be followed tomorrow. The
sun rises verily from the prana (the vital breath in its cosmic form) and
also sets in it. The gods even today observe the same vow which they
observed then.

Therefore a man should observe a single vow-he should perform the
functions of the prana and apana (respiration and excretion), lest the
evil of death should overtake him. And if he performs them, let him try to
complete them. Through this he obtains identity with that deity, or lives
in the same world with it.

Chapter
VI

The Three Aspects of the Universe

1. Verily, this universe is a triad of name, form and work. Of those names
which are in daily use, speech (sound in general) is the source (uktha),
for from it all names arise. It is their common feature (saman), for it is
common to all names. It is their Brahman (self), for it supports all
names.

2. Next, of forms, the eye is the source (uktha), for from it all forms
arise. It is their Common feature (saman), for it is common to all forms.
It is their Brahman (self), for it supports all forms.

3. Next, of work, the body is the source (uktha), for from it all works
arise. It is their common feature (saman), for it is common to all works.
It is their Brahman (self), for it supports all works.

These three together are one-this body; and the body, although one, is
these three. This immortal entity is covered by truth: the vital breath is
the immortal entity and name and form are truth and by them the immortal
entity is covered.

Part
Two

Chapter I

Relative Aspects of Brahman

1. Om. There lived of yore a man of the Garga family called proud Balaki,
who was an eloquent speaker. He said to Ajatasatru, the king of Kasi:
“I will tell you about Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “For this
proposal I give you a thousand cows. People indeed rush, saying: ‘Janaka,
Janaka.’ I too have some of his virtues.”

2. Gargya said: “That being (purusha) who is in the sun, I meditate
upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk
to me about him. I meditate upon him as all-surpassing, as the head of all
beings and as resplendent.” Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes
all-surpassing, the head of all beings and resplendent.

3. Gargya said: “That being (purusha) who is in the moon, I meditate
upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk
to me about him. I meditate upon him as the great, white-robed, radiant
Soma.” Whosoever thus meditates upon him has, every day, abundant
soma pressed for him in his principal and auxiliary sacrifices and his
food never runs short.

4. Gargya said: “That being (purusha) who is in the lightning, I
meditate upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do
not talk to me about him. I meditate upon him as luminous.” Whosoever
thus meditates upon him becomes luminous and his progeny too become
luminous.

5. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who is in the akasa, I meditate
upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk
about him. I meditate upon him as full and unmoving.” Whosoever thus
meditates upon him is filled with progeny and cattle and his progeny is
never extinct from this world.

6. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who is in the air, I meditate
upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk
about him. I meditate upon him as the Lord (Indra), as irresistible and as
the unvanquished army.” Whosoever thus meditates upon him becomes
ever victorious, invincible and a conqueror of enemies.

7. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who is in fire, I meditate upon
as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk about
him. I meditate upon him as forbearing.” Whosoever thus meditates
upon him becomes forbearing and his progeny becomes forbearing.

8. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who is in water, I meditate
upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk
about him. I meditate upon him as agreeable.” Whosoever thus
meditates upon him-to him comes what is agreeable, not what is
disagreeable and to him are born children who are agreeable.

9. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who is in the mirror, I
meditate upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do
not talk about him. I meditate upon him as shining.” Whosoever thus
meditates upon him becomes shining and his progeny too becomes shining and
he outshines all those with whom he comes in contact.

10. Gargya said: “The sound that arises behind a man while he walks,
I meditate upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do
not talk about him. I meditate upon him as life.” Whosoever thus
meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth and life does not
depart from him before the completion of that time.

11. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who is in the quarters, I
meditate upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do
not talk about him. I meditate upon him as second and as
inseparable.” Whosoever thus mediates upon him gets companions and
his followers never part with him.

12. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who consists of shadow, I
meditate upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do
not talk about him. I meditate upon him as death.” Whosoever thus
meditates upon him reaches his full age on this earth and death does not
overtake him before the completion of that time.

13. Gargya said: “This being (purusha) who is in the self, I meditate
upon as Brahman.” Ajatasatru said: “No, no! Please do not talk
about him. I meditate upon him as self-possessed.” Whosoever thus
meditates upon him becomes self-possessed and his progeny too becomes
self-possessed. Gargya remained silent.

14. Ajatasatru said: “Is this all?” “That is all.”
“By knowing that much one cannot know Brahman.” “Let me
approach you as a student,” said Gargya.

15. Ajatasatru said: “It is contrary to usual practice that a brahmin
should approach a kshatriya, thinking: ‘He will teach me about Brahman.’
Nevertheless, I will instruct you.” So saying, he took Gargya by the
hand and rose. They came to a sleeping man. Ajatasatru addressed him by
these names: Great, White-robed, Radiant, Soma. The man did not get up.
The king pushed him again and again with his hand till he awoke. Then he
got up.

16. Ajatasatru said: “When this being full of consciousness
(identified with the intellect) was thus asleep, where was it then and
whence did it thus come back?” Gargya did not know the answer.

17.

Ajatasatru said: “When this being full of consciousness (vijnana maya)
is thus asleep, it absorbs, at that time, the functions of the organs
through its own consciousness and rests in the Supreme Self (akasa) that
is in the heart. When this being absorbs them, it is called svapiti. Then
the organ of smell is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye
is absorbed, the ear is absorbed and the mind is absorbed.”

18. When the self remains in the dream state, these are its achievements
(results of past action): It then becomes a great king, as it were; or a
noble brahmin, as it were; or attains, as it were, high or low states.
Even as a great king, taking with him his retinue of citizens, moves
about, according to his pleasure, within his own domain, so does the self,
taking with it the organs, move about according to its pleasure, in the
body.

19. Next, when the self goes into deep sleep-when it does not know
anything-it returns along the seventy-two thousand nerves called hita,
which extend from the heart throughout the whole body and remains in the
body. As a baby or an emperor or a noble brahmin lives, having reached the
summit of happiness, so does the self rest.

20. As the spider moves along the thread it produces, or as from a fire
tiny sparks fly in all directions, even so from this Atman come forth all
organs, all worlds, all gods, all beings. Its secret name (Upanishad) is
“the Truth of truth.” The vital breaths are the truth and their
truth is Atman.

Chapter
II

Description of the Prana

1. He who knows the calf together with its abode, its special resort, its
post and its rope, kills his seven hostile kinsmen. The vital breath in
the body is indeed the calf; this body is its abode, the head its special
resort, strength its post and food its rope.

2. These seven gods that prevent decay worship it (the calf): through
these pink lines in the eye, Rudra attends on it; through the water in the
eye, Parjanya attends on it; through the pupil of the eye, the sun attends
on it; through the black of the eye, fire attends on it; through the white
portion, Indra; through the lower eyelid, the earth; and through the upper
eyelid, heaven attends on it. He who knows this-his food does not
diminish.

3. Regarding this there is the following mantra: “There is a bowl
which has its mouth below and which bulges at the top. Manifold knowledge
has been put into it; seven sages sit on its rim and the organ of speech,
which has communication with the Vedas, is the eighth.” What is
called the “bowl which has its mouth below and which bulges at the
top” is this head of ours, for it is a bowl which has its mouth below
and which bulges at the top. When it is said: “Manifold knowledge has
been put into it,” this refers to the organs; these indeed represent
manifold knowledge. When it is said: “Seven sages sit on its
rim,” this refers to the organs; they indeed are the sages. “The
organ of speech, which has communication with the Vedas, is the
eighth” because the organ of speech is the eighth and communicates
with the Vedas.

4. These two ears are Gotama and Bharadvaja: this one (the right) is
Gotama and this one (the left), Bharadvaja. These two eyes are Visvamitra
and Jamadagni: this one (the right) is Visvamitra and this one (the left),
Jamadagni. These two nostrils are Vasishtha and Kasyapa: this one (the
right) is Vasishtha and this one (the left), Kasyapa. The tongue is Atri,
for through the tongue food is eaten. Atri is the same as atti (eating).
He who knows this becomes the eater of everything and everything becomes
his food.

Chapter
III

The Two Forms of Brahman

1. Verily, there are two forms of Brahman: gross and subtle, mortal and
immortal, limited and unlimited, definite and indefinite.

2. The gross form is that which is other than air and akasa. It is mortal,
limited and definite. The essence of that which is gross, which is mortal,
which is limited and which is definite is the sun that shines, for it (the
sun) is the essence of the three elements.

3. Now the subtle: It is air and akasa. It is immortal, it is unlimited
and it is indefinite. The essence of that which is subtle, which is
immortal, which is unlimited and which is indefinite is the Person
(Purusha) in the solar orb, for that Person is the essence of the two
elements. This is with reference to the gods.

4. Now with reference to the body: The gross form is that which is other
than the air and the akasa that is in the body. It is mortal, it is
limited and it is definite. The essence of that which is gross, which is
mortal, which is limited and which is definite is the eye; for it (the
eye) is the essence of the three elements.

5. Now the subtle: It is the air and the akasa that is in the body. It is
immortal, it is unlimited and it is indefinite. The essence of that which
is subtle, which is immortal, which is unlimited and which is indefinite
is the person (purusha) that is in the right eye, for that person is the
essence of the two elements.

6. The form of that person is like a cloth dyed with turmeric, or like
grey sheep’s wool, or like the scarlet insect called Indragopa, or like a
tongue of fire, or like a white lotus, or like a flash of lightning. He
who knows this-his splendour is like a flash of lightning. Now, therefore,
the description of Brahman: “Not this, not this” (Neti, Neti);
for there is no other and more appropriate description than this “Not
this.” Now the designation of Brahman: “The Truth of
truth.” The vital breath is truth and It (Brahman) is the Truth of
that.

Chapter IV

Yajnavalkya and
Maitreyi (I)


1. “Maitreyi, my dear,” said Yajnavalkya, “I am going to
renounce this life. Let me make a final settlement between you and
Katyayani (his other wife).”

2. Thereupon Maitreyi said: “Venerable Sir, if indeed the whole
earth, full of wealth, belonged to me, would I be immortal through
that?” “No,” replied Yajnavalkya, “your life would be
just like that of people who have plenty. Of Immortality, however, there
is no hope through wealth.”

3. Then Maitreyi said: “What should I do with that which would not
make me immortal? Tell me, venerable Sir, of that alone which you know to
be the only means of attaining Immortality.”

4. Yajnavalkya replied: “My dear, you have been my beloved even
before, and now you say what is after my heart. Come, sit down; I will
explain it to you. As I explain it, meditate on what I say.”

5. Then Yajnavalkya said: “Verily, not for the sake of the husband,
my dear, is the husband loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self
which, in its true nature, is one with the Supreme Self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the wife, my dear, is the wife loved,
but she is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the sons, my dear, are the sons loved,
hut they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of wealth, my dear, is wealth loved, but it
is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the brahmin, my dear, is the brahmin
loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the kshatriya, my dear, is the kshatriya
loved, but he is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the worlds, my dear, are the worlds
loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the gods, my dear, are the gods loved,
but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the beings, my dear, are the beings
loved, but they are loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, not for the sake of the All, my dear, is the All loved, but
it is loved for the sake of the self.

“Verily, my dear Maitreyi, it is the Self that should be
realized-should be heard of, reflected on, and meditated upon. By the
realization of the Self, my dear-through hearing, reflection, and
meditation-all this is known.

6. “The brahmin rejects one who knows him as different from the Self.
The kshatriya rejects one who knows him as different from the Self. The
worlds reject one who knows them as different from the Self. The gods
reject one who knows them as different from the Self. The beings reject
one who knows them as different from the Self. The All rejects one who
knows it as different from the Self. This brahmin, this kshatriya, these
worlds, these gods, these beings, and this All-are that Self.

7-9. “As the various particular kinds of notes of a drum, when it is
beaten, cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the
general note of the drum or the general sound produced by different kinds
of strokes is grasped;

“And as the various particular notes of a conch, when it is blown,
cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped only when the general
note of the conch or the general sound produced by different kinds of
blowing is grasped;

“And as the various particular notes of a vina, when it is played,
cannot be grasped by themselves, but are grasped Only when the general
note of the vina or the general sound produced by different kinds of
playing is grasped;

Similarly, no particular objects are perceived in the waking and dream
states apart from Pure Intelligence.

10. “As from a fire kindled with wet fuel various kinds of smoke
issue forth, even so, my dear, the Rig-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the
Sama-Veda, the Atharvangirasa, history (itihasa), mythology (purana), the
arts (vidya), the Upanishads, verses (slokas), aphorisms (sutras),
elucidations (anuvyakhyanas) and explanations (vyakhyanas) are like the
breath of this infinite Reality. From this Supreme Self are all these,
indeed, breathed forth.

11. “As the ocean is the one goal of all waters (i.e. the place where
they merge), so the skin is the one goal of all kinds of touch, the
nostrils are the one goal of all smells, the tongue is the one goal of all
savours, the ear is the one goal of all sounds, the mind is the one goal
of all deliberations, the intellect is the one goal of all forms of
knowledge, the hands are the one goal of all actions, the organ of
generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment, the excretory organ
is the one goal of all excretions, the feet are the one goal of all kinds
of walking, the organ of speech is the one goal of all the Vedas.

12. “As a lump of salt dropped into water becomes dissolved in water
and cannot be taken out again, but wherever we taste the water it tastes
salt, even so, my dear, this great, endless, infinite Reality is Pure
Intelligence alone. This self comes out as a separate entity from these
elements and with their destruction this separate existence also is
destroyed. After attaining oneness it has no more consciousness. This is
what I say, my dear.”

So said Yajnavalkya.

13. Then Maitreyi said: “Just here you have bewildered me, venerable
Sir, by saying that after attaining oneness the self has no more
consciousness.”

Yajnavalkya replied: “Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering,
my dear. This Reality is enough for knowledge, O Maitreyi.”

14. “For when there is duality, as it were, then one smells another,
one sees another, one hears another, one speaks to another, one thinks of
another, one knows another. But when everything has become the Self, then
what should one smell and through what, what should one see and through
what, what should one hear and through what, what should one speak and
through what, what should one think and through what, what should one know
and through what? Through what should One know That owing to which all
this is known-through what, my dear, should one know the Knower?”

Chapter
V

The Interdependence of Created Objects

1. This Earth is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this earth. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is
in this earth and the bright, immortal, corporeal being who is in the body
are both honey. These four are but this Self. The Knowledge of this Self
is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman; this
Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

2. This water is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this water. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is
in this water and the bright, immortal being existing as the semen in the
body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The Knowledge of this
Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman; this
Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

3. This fire is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this fire. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is
in this fire and the bright, immortal being identified with the organ of
speech in the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The
Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity
is Brahman; this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

4. This air is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this air. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in
this air and the bright, immortal being identified with the vital breath
in the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The Knowledge of
this Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman;
this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

5. This sun is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this sun. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is in
this sun and the bright, immortal being identified with the eye in the
body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The Knowledge of this
Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman; this
Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

6. These quarters are the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are
the honey (effect) of these quarters. Likewise, the bright, immortal being
who is in these quarters and the bright, immortal being identified with
the ear in the body and with the time of hearing are both honey. These
four are but this Self. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to
Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman; this Knowledge of Brahman
is the means of becoming all.

7. This moon is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this moon. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is
in this moon and the bright, immortal being identified with the mind in
the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The Knowledge of
this Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman;
this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

8. This lightning is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are
the honey (effect) of this lightning. Likewise, the bright, immortal being
who is in this lightning and the bright, immortal being identified with
the light in the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The
Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying Unity
is Brahman; this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

9. This thunder-cloud is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings
are the honey (effect) of this thunder-cloud. Likewise, the bright,
immortal being who is in this thunder-cloud and the bright, immortal being
identified with sound and with the voice in the body are both honey. These
four are but this Self. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to
Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman; this Knowledge of Brahman
is the means of becoming all.

10. This akasa is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this akasa. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is
in this akasa and the bright, immortal being identified with the akasa in
the heart in the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The
Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity
is Brahman; this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

11. This dharma (righteousness) is the honey (effect) of all beings and
all beings are the honey (effect) of this dharma. Likewise, the bright,
immortal being who is in this dharma and the bright, immortal being
identified with the dharma in the body are both honey. These four are but
this self. This knowledge of this self is the means to Immortality; this
underlying unity is Brahman; this knowledge of Brahman is the means of
becoming all.

12. This truth is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are the
honey (effect) of this truth. Likewise, the bright, immortal being who is
in this truth and the bright, immortal being identified with truth in the
body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The Knowledge of this
Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman; this
Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

13. This mankind is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all beings are
the honey (effect) of this mankind. Likewise, the bright, immortal being
who is in mankind and the bright, immortal being identified with mankind
in the body are both honey. These four are but this Self. The Knowledge of
this Self is the means to Immortality; this underlying unity is Brahman;
this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of becoming all.

14. This cosmic body (atman) is the honey (effect) of all beings, and all
beings are the honey (effect) of this cosmic body. Likewise, the bright,
immortal being who is in the cosmic body and the bright, immortal being
identified with the individual self are both honey. These four are but
this Self. The Knowledge of this Self is the means to Immortality; this
underlying unity is Brahman; this Knowledge of Brahman is the means of
becoming all.

15. And verily this Self is the Ruler of all beings, the King of all
beings. Just as all the spokes are fixed in the nave and the felloe of a
chariot wheel, so are all beings, all gods, all worlds, all organs, and
all these individual creatures fixed in this Self.

16. This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyach, versed in
the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this
and said:

“O Asvins in human form, I will disclose that terrible deed of yours,
called damsa, which you performed out of greed, as the thunder-cloud
discloses the approaching rain. I will disclose the honey (madhu-doctrine),
which Dadhyach, versed in the Atharva-Veda, taught you through the head of
a horse.”

17. This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyach, versed in
the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this
and said:

“O Asvins, you fixed a horse’s head on Dadhyach, versed in the
Atharva-Veda, who, O terrible ones, wishing to be true to his promise,
taught you the ritualistic meditation on the honey (madhu-doctrine)
connected with the sun and also the secret (spiritual) meditation on
it.”

18. This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyach, versed in
the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. The Mantra (rishi) perceived this and
said:

“He (the Lord) made bodies with two feet; He made bodies with four
feet. Having first become a bird (the subtle body), He, the Supreme
Person, entered the bodies. On account of His dwelling in all bodies (pur),
He is called the Person (Purusha). There is nothing that is not covered by
Him, nothing that is not pervaded by Him.”

19. This, verily, is the honey (madhu-doctrine) which Dadhyach, versed in
the Atharva-Veda, taught the Asvins. The Mantra (the rishi) perceived this
and said:

“He (the Lord) transformed Himself in accordance with each form and
each form of His was for the sake of making Him known. The Lord (Indra),
through His mayas, appears manifold; for to Him are yoked ten horses, nay,
hundreds. “This Atman is the organs; It is ten and thousands-many and
infinite. This Brahman is without antecedent or consequent, without
interior or exterior. This self, the all-perceiving, is Brahman. This is
the teaching of the Upanishads.”

Chapter
VI

The Line of Teachers

1. Now the line of teachers through whom the honey, or the madhu-doctrine,
has been transmitted:

Pautimashya received it from Gaupavana. Gaupavana from another Pautimashya.
This Pautimashya from another Gaupavana. This Gaupavana from Kausika.
Kausika from Kaundinya. Kaundinya from Sandilya. Sandilya from Kausika and
Gautama. Gautama

2. From Agnivesya. Agnivesya from Sandilya and Anabhimlata. Anabhimlata
from another Anabhimlata. This Anabhimlata from still another Anabhimlata.
This Anabhimlata from Gautama. Gautama from Saitava and Prachinayogya.
Saitava and Prachinayogya from Parasarya. Parasarya from Bharadvaja.
Bharadvaja from another Bharadvaja and Gautama. Gautama from still another
Bharadvaja. This Bharadvaja from Parasarya. Parasarya from Baijavapayana.
Baijavapayana from Kausikayani. Kausikayani

3. From Ghritakausika. Ghritakausika from Parasaryayana. Parasaryayana
from Parasarya. Parasarya from Jatukarnya. Jatukarnya from Asurayana and
Yaska. Asurayana from Traivani. Traivani from Aupajandhani. Aupajandhani
from Asuri. Asuri from Bharadvaja. Bharadvaja from Atreya. Atreya from
Manti. Minti from Gautama. Gautama from another Gautama. This Gautama from
Vatsya. Vatsya from Andilya. Andilya from Kaisorya Kapya. Kaisorya Kapya
from Kumaraharita. Kumaraharita from Galava. Galava from Vidarbhikaundinya.
Vidarbhikaundinya from Vatsanapat Babhrava. Vatsanapat Babhrava from
Pathin Saubhara. Pathin Saubhara from Ayasya Angirasa. Ayasya Angirasa
from Abhuti Tvashtra. Abhuti Tvashtra from Visvarupa Tvashtra. Visvarupa
Tvashtra from the Asyins. The Asvins from Dadhyach Atharvana. Dadhyach
Atharvana from Atharvana Daiva. Atharvana Daiva from Mrityu Pradhvamsana.
Mrityu Pradhvamsana from Pradhvamsana. Pradhvamsana from Ekarshi. Ekarshi
from Viprachitti. Viprachitti from Vyashti. Vyashti from Sanaru. Sanaru
from Sanatana. Sanatana from Sanaga. Sanaga from Parameshthin (Viraj).
Parameshthin from Brahma (Hiranyagarbha). Brahman is self-born. Salutation
to Brahman.


Part Three Chapter I


Yajnavalkya and Asvala

1. Om. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, performed a sacrifice in which gifts
were freely distributed among the priests. Brahmin scholars from the
countries of Kuru and Panchala were assembled there. Emperor Tanaka of
Videha wished to know which of these brahmins was the most erudite Vedic
scholar. So he confined a thousand cows in a pen and fastened on the horns
of each ten padas of gold.

2. He said to them: “Venerable brahmins, let him among you who is the
best Vedic scholar drive these cows home.”

None of the brahmins dared. Then Yajnavalkya said to one of his pupils:
“Dear Samsrava, drive these cows home.” He drove them away.

The brahmins were furious and said: “How does he dare to call himself
the best Vedic scholar among us?”

Now among them there was Asvala, the hotri priest of Emperor Janaka of
Videha. He asked Yajnavalkya: “Are you indeed the best Vedic scholar
among us, O Yajnavalkya?”

He replied: “I bow to the best Vedic scholar, but I just wish to have
these cows.”

Thereupon the hotri Asvala determined to question him.

3. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “since everything here (i.e.
connected with the sacrifice) is overtaken by death, since everything is
overcome by death, by what means does the sacrificer free himself from the
reach of death?”

“Through the hotri priest and the organ of speech looked upon as
fire. The sacrificer’s organ of speech is the hotri. This organ of speech
is fire; this fire is the hotri; this fire is the means to liberation;
this is complete liberation.”

4. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “since everything here is
overtaken by day and night, since everything is overcome by day and night,
by what means does the sacrificer free himself from the reach of day and
night?”

“Through the adhvaryu priest and the eye looked upon as the sun. The
sacrificer’s eye is the adhvaryu. This eye is the sun. This sun is the
adhvaryu; this sun is the means to liberation; this is complete
liberation.”

5. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “since everything here is
overtaken by the bright and dark fortnights, since everything is overcome
by the bright and dark fortnights, by what means does the sacrificer free
himself from the reach of the bright and dark fortnights?”

“Through the udgatri priest and the vital breath looked upon as the
air. This vital breath is the udgatri. This vital breath is the air; this
air is the udgatri; this air is the means to liberation; this is complete
liberation.”

6. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “since the sky is, as it were,
without a support, by means of what support does the sacrificer go to
heaven?”

“Through the Brahma priest and the mind looked upon as the moon. The
sacrificer’s mind is the Brahma. The mind is the moon; this moon is the
Brahma; this moon is the means to liberation; this is complete liberation.


So far about the ways of liberation; now about the meditation based upon
resemblance.

7. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “how many kinds of Rig verses
will the hotri priest use today in this sacrifice?”

“Three kinds.”

“And which are these three?”

“The introductory, the sacrificial and the eulogistic as the
third.”

“What does he (the sacrificer) win through them?”

“All this that has life.”

8. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “how many kinds of oblations
will the adhvaryu priest offer today in this sacrifice?”

“Three.”

“And which are these three?”

“Those which, when offered, blaze upward; those which, when offered,
make a great noise; and those which, when offered, sink down.”

“What does he (the sacrificer) win through them?”

“By those which, when offered, blaze upward, he wins the world of the
gods; for the world of the gods shines bright, as it were. By those which,
when offered, make a great noise, he wins the world of the Manes; for this
world of the Manes is excessively noisy. By those which, when offered,
sink down, he wins the world of men; for the world of men is down
below.”

9. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “with how many gods does the
Brahma priest seated on the right protect the sacrifice today?”

“With one.”

“Which is that one?”

“The mind. The mind is indeed infinite and infinite are the Visve-devas.
An infinite world he (the sacrificer) wins thereby.”

10. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “how many kinds of hymns of
praise will the udgatri priest chant today in this sacrifice?”

“Three.”

“And which are these three?”

“The introductory, the sacrificial and the eulogistic “Which are
those that have reference to the body?” “The prana is the
introductory hymn, the apana is hymn and the vyana is the eulogistic
hymn.”

“What does he (the sacrificer) win through them?”

“Through the introductory hymn he wins the earth, through the
sacrificial hymn he wins the sky and through the eulogistic hymn he wins
heaven.

Thereupon the priest Asvala held his peace.


Chapter II

Yajnavalkya and Artabhaga

1. Then Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, questioned him.

“Yajnavalkya,” said he, “how many grahas (organs) are there
and how many atigrahas (objects)?”

“Eight grahas,” he replied, “and eight atigrahas.”

“And which are these eight grahas and eight atigrahas?”

2. “The Prana (the nose), indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by
the apana (odour), the atigraha; for one smells odours through apana (the
air breathed in).

3. “The vak (the organ of speech), indeed, is the graha; it is
controlled by the atigraha, name; for one utters names through the organ
of speech.

4. “The tongue, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the
atigraha, taste; for one knows tastes by the tongue.

5. “The eye, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha
colour; for one sees colours through the eye.

6. “The ear, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha
sound; for one hears sounds with the ear.

7. “The mind, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha
desire; for through the mind one cherishes desires.

8. “The hands, indeed, are the graha; they are controlled by the
atigraha, work; for one performs work by means of the hands.

9. “The skin, indeed, is the graha; it is controlled by the atigraha,
touch; for one feels touch through the skin. These are the eight grahas
and eight atigrahas.”

10. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “since all this is the food of
death, who, pray, is that god to whom death is the food?”

“Fire, indeed, is death; it is the food of water. One who knows this
conquers further death.”

11. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “when this liberated person
dies, do his organs depart from him or not?”

“No,” replied Yajnavalkya, “they merge in him only. The
body swells, is inflated and in that state the dead body lies at
rest.”

12. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “when such a man dies, what is
it that does not leave him?”

“The name. For the name is infinite and infinite are the Visve-devas.
He who knows this wins thereby an infinite world.”

13. “Yajnavalkya,” said he, “when the vocal organ of this
dead person merges in fire, the nose in air, the eye in the sun, the mind
in the moon, the ear in the quarters, the body in the earth, the akasa
(space) in the heart in the external akasa, the hair on the body in the
herbs, the hair on the head in the trees and the blood and semen are
deposited in water, where is that person then?”

Yajnavalkya said: “Give me your hand, dear Artabhaga. We shall decide
this between ourselves; we cannot do it in a crowd.”

Then they went out and deliberated and what they talked about was karma
(work) and what they praised was karma: one becomes good through good
karma and evil through evil karma.

Thereupon Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, held his peace.

Chapter
III

Yajnavalkya and Bhujyu

1. Next Bhujyu, the grandson of Lahya, questioned him.

“Yajnavalkya,” said he, “we were travelling in the country
of Madra as religious students, when we came to the house of Patanchala,
of the line of Kapi. His daughter was possessed by a gandharva.

We asked him: ‘Who are you?’ He said: ‘I am Sudhanvan, of the line of
Angiras.’ While asking him about the limits of the world, we said: ‘Where
were the descendants of Parikshit?’ And likewise I ask you, Yajnavalkya,
where were the descendants of Parikshit? Tell me, where were the
descendants of Parikshit?”

2. Yajnavalkya said: “The gandharva, I suppose, told you that they
went where those who perform the Horse-sacrifice go.”

“And where do they go who have performed the Horse-sacrifice?”

“Thirty-two times the space traversed by the sun’s chariot in a day
makes this plane (loka); around it, covering twice the area, is the world
(prithivi); around the world, covering twice the area, is the ocean. Now,
as is the edge of a razor or the wing of a fly, so is there just that much
space between the two halves of the cosmic shell. Through that opening
they go out. “Fire, in the form of a falcon, delivered them to Vayu.
Vayu, placing them in itself, took them where previous performers of the
Horse-sacrifice were.”

Thus did the gandharva praise Vayu. Therefore Vayu alone is the aggregate
of all individuals. He who knows this, as stated above, conquers further
death.

Thereupon Bhujyu, the grandson of Lahya, held his peace.


Chapter IV

Yajnavalkya and Ushasta

1. Then Ushasta, the son of Chakra, questioned him.

“Yajnavalkya,” said he, “explain to me the Brahman that is
immediately and directly perceived-the self that is within all.”

“This is your self that is within all.”

“Which self is within all, Yajnavalkya?”

“That which breathes through the prana is your self that is within
all. That which moves downward through the apana is your self that is
within all. That which pervades through the vyana is your self that is
within all. That which goes out with the udana is your self that is within
all. This is your self that is within all.”

2. Ushasta, the son of Chakra, said: “You have explained it as one
might say: ‘Such is a cow,’ ‘Such is a horse.’ Tell me precisely the
Brahman that is immediate and direct-the self that is within all.”

“This is your self that is within all.”

“Which is within all, Yajnavalkya?”

“You cannot see the seer of seeing; you cannot hear the hearer of
hearing; you cannot think of the thinker of thinking; you cannot know the
knower of knowing. This is your self that is within all; everything else
but this is perishable.”

Thereupon Ushasta, the son of Chakra, held his peace.


Chapter V

Yajnavalkya and Kahola

1. Next Kahola, the son of Kushitaka, questioned him.

“Yajnavalkya,” said he, “explain to me the Brahman that is
directly and immediately perceived-the self that is within all.”

“This is your self that is within all.”

“Which self is within all, Yajnavalkya ?”

“It is that which transcends hunger and thirst, grief, delusion, old
age and death. Having realized this Self, brahmins give up the desire for
sons, the desire for wealth and the desire for the worlds and lead the
life of religious mendicants. That which is the desire for sons is the
desire for wealth and that which is the desire for wealth is the desire
for the worlds; for both these are but desires.

Therefore a brahmin, after he is done with scholarship, should try to live
on that strength which comes of scholarship. After he is done with that
strength and scholarship, he becomes meditative and after he is done with
both meditativeness and non-meditativeness, he becomes a knower of
Brahman.

“How does the knower of Brahman behave? Howsoever he may behave, he
is such indeed.

Everything else but this is perishable.”

Thereupon Kahola, the son of Kushitaka, held his peace.

Chapter VI

Yajnavalkya and Gargi
(I)


1. Then Gargi, the daughter of Vachaknu, questioned him.

“Yajnavalkya ,” said she, “if all this is pervaded by
water, by what, pray, is water pervaded?”

“By air, O Gargi.”

“By what, pray, is air pervaded?”

“By the sky, O Gargi.”

“By what is the sky pervaded?”

“By the world of the gandharvas, O Gargi.”

“By what is the world of the gandharvas pervaded?”

“By the world of the sun, O Gargi.

“By what is the world of the sun pervaded?”

“By the world of the moon, O Gargi.”

“By what is the world of the moon pervaded?”

“By the world of the stars, O Gargi.”

“By what is the world of the stars pervaded?”

“By the world of the gods, O Gargi.”

“By what is the world of the gods pervaded?”

“By the world of Indra, O Gargi.

“By what is the world of Indra pervaded?”

“By the World of Virij, O Gargi.

“By what is the World of Virij pervaded?”

“By the World of Hiranyagarbha, O Gargi.”

“By what, pray, is the World of Hiranyagarbha pervaded?”

“Do not, O Gargi,” said he, “question too much, lest your
head should fall off. You are questioning too much about a deity about
whom we should not ask too much. Do not ask too much, O Gargi.”

Thereupon Gargi, the daughter of Vachaknu, held her peace.


Chapter VII

Yajnavalkya and Uddalaka

1. Then Uddalaka, the son of Aruna, questioned him.

“Yajnavalkya,” said he, “in the country of Madra we lived
in the house of Patanchala, of the line of Kapi, studying the scriptures
on the sacrifices. His wife was possessed by a gandharva. We asked him:
‘Who are you?’ He said: ‘I am Kabandha, the son of Atharvan.’ He said to
Patanchala Kapya and those studying the scriptures on the sacrifices: ‘O
descendant of Kapi, do you know that Sutra by which this world, the other
world and all beings are held together?’ Patanchala Kapya said: ‘I do not
know it, venerable Sir.’ Then he said to Patanchala Kapya and those
studying the scriptures on the sacrifices: ‘O descendant of Kapi, do you
know that Inner Controller who controls this world, the next world and all
beings?’ Patanchala Kapya said: ‘I do not know him, venerable Sir.’ Then
he said to Patanchala Kapya and those studying the scriptures on the
sacrifices: ‘O descendant of Kapi, he who knows that Sutra and that Inner
Controller indeed knows Brahman; he knows the worlds, he knows the gods,
he knows the Vedas, he knows the beings, he knows the self, he knows
everything.’ He explained it all to them and I know it. If you,
Yajnavalkya, do not know that Sutra and that Inner Controller and still
take away the cows that belong only to the knowers of Brahman, your head
will fall off.”

“I know, O Gautama, that Sutra and that Inner Controller.”

“Anyone might say: ‘I know, I know.’ Tell us what you know.”

2. Yajnavalkya said: “Vayu, O Gautama, is that Sutra. By Vayu, as by
a thread, O Gautama, are this world, the other world and all beings held
together. Therefore, O Gautama, they say of a person who dies that his
limbs have been loosened; for they are held together by Vayu as by a
thread.”

“Quite so, Yajnavalkya. Now describe the Inner Controller.”

3. Yajnavalkya said: “He who inhabits the earth, yet is within the
earth, whom the earth does not know, whose body the earth is and who
controls the earth from within-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the
Immortal.

4-14. “He who inhabits water, yet is within water, whom water does
not know, whose body water is and who controls water from within-He is
your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits fire, yet is within fire, whom fire does not know,
whose body fire is and who controls fire from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the sky, yet is within the sky, whom the sky does
not know, whose body the sky is and who controls the sky from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal. “He who
inhabits the air, yet is within the air, whom the air does not know, whose
body the air is and who controls the air from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits heaven, yet is within heaven, whom heaven does not
know, whose body heaven is and who controls heaven from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the sun, yet is within the sun, whom the sun does
not know, whose body the sun is and who controls the sun from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the quarters of space, yet is within them, whom the
quarters do not know, whose

body the quarters are and who controls the quarters from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the moon and stars, yet is within the moon and
stars, whom the moon and stars do not know, whose body the moon and stars
are and who controls the moon and stars from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the akasa, yet is within the akasa, whom the akasa
does not know, whose body the akasa is and who controls the akasa from
within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits darkness, yet is within darkness, whom darkness does
not know, whose body darkness is and who controls darkness from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits light, yet is within light, whom light does not
know, whose body light is and who controls light from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.”

This much with reference to the gods (adhidaivatam). Now with reference to
beings (adhibhutam).

15. Yajnavalkya said: “He who inhabits all beings, yet is within all
beings, whom no beings know, whose body all beings are and who controls
all beings from within-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the
Immortal.”

This much with reference to the beings. Now with reference to the body.

16. Yajnavalkya said: “He who inhabits the nose (prana), yet is
within the nose, whom the nose does not know, whose body the nose is and
who controls the nose from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the organ of speech, yet is within speech, whom
speech does not know, whose body speech is and who controls speech from
within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the eye, yet is within the eye, whom the eye does
not know, whose body the eye is and who controls the eye from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the ear, yet is within the ear, whom the ear does
not know, whose body the ear is and who controls the ear from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the mind, yet is within the mind, whom the mind does
not know, whose body the mind is and who controls the mind from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the skin, yet is within the skin, whom the skin does
not know, whose body the skin is and who controls the skin from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the intellect (vijnana), yet is within the
intellect, whom the intellect does not know, whose body the intellect is
and who controls the intellect from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He who inhabits the organ of generation, yet is within the organ,
whom the organ does not know, whose body the organ is and who controls the
organ from within

-He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal.

“He is never seen, but is the Seer; He is never heard, but is the
Hearer; He is never thought of, but is the Thinker; He is never known, but
is the Knower. There is no other seer than He, there is no other hearer
than He, there is no other thinker than He, there is no other knower than
He. He is your Self, the Inner Controller, the Immortal. Everything else
but Him is perishable.”

Thereupon Uddilaka, the son of Aruna, held his peace.

Chapter VIII

Yajnavalkya and Gargi
(II)


1. Then the daughter of Vachaknu said: ‘Venerable brahmins, I shall ask
him two questions. If he answers me these, then none of you can defeat him
in discussing Brahman.”

The brahmins said: “Ask, O Gargi.”

2. Gargi said: “O Yajnavalkya, I shall ask you two questions:

As a man of Kasi or the King of Videha, scion of a heroic line, might
string his unstrung bow, take in his hand two bamboo-tipped arrows highly
painful to enemies and approach his enemies closely, even so, O
Yajnavalkya, do I confront you with two questions. Answer me these.”

“Ask, O Gargi.”

3. She said: “O Yajnavalkya, what pervades that Sutra which is above
heaven and below the earth, which is heaven and earth as well as what is
between them and which-they say-was, is and will be?”

4. He said: “That, O Gargi, which is above heaven and below the
earth, which is heaven and earth as well as what is between them and
which-they say-was, is and will be, is pervaded by the unmanifested akasa.

5. She said: “I bow to you, O Yajnavalkya. You have fully answered
this question of mine. Now brace yourself for the other.”

“Ask, O Gargi.”

6-7. She said: “Yajnavalkya, what pervades that Sutra which is above
heaven and below the earth, which is heaven and earth as well as what is
between them and which-they say-was, is and will be?”

He said: “That, O Gargi, which is above heaven and below the earth,
which is heaven and earth as well as what is between them and which-they
say-was, is and will be, is pervaded by the unmanifested akasa.”

“What pervades the akasa?”

8. He said: “That, O Gargi, the knowers of Brahman call the
Imperishable. It is neither gross nor subtle, neither short nor long,
neither red nor moist; It is neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor
akasa; It is unattached; It is without taste or smell, without eyes or
ears, without tongue or mind; It is non-effulgent, without vital breath or
mouth, without measure and without exterior or interior. It does not eat
anything, nor is It eaten by anyone.

9. “Verily, under the mighty rule of this Imperishable, O Gargi, the
sun and moon are held in their respective positions. Under the mighty rule
of this Imperishable, O Gargi, heaven and earth are held in their
respective positions. Under the mighty rule of this Imperishable, O Gargi,
moments, muhurtas (about forty-eight minutes), days and nights,
fortnights, months, seasons and years are held in their respective
positions. Under the mighty rule of this Imperishable, O Gargi, some
rivers flow eastward from the white mountains, others flowing westward
continue in that direction and still others keep to their respective
courses. Under the mighty rule of this Imperishable, O Gargi, men praise
those who give, the gods depend upon the sacrificer and the Manes upon the
Darvi offering.

10. “Whosoever in this world, O Gargi, without knowing this
Imperishable, offers oblations, performs sacrifices and practises
austerities, even for many thousands of years, finds all such acts but
perishable. Whosoever, O Gargi, departs from this world without knowing
this Imperishable is miserable. But he, O Gargi, who departs from this
world after knowing the Imperishable is a knower of Brahman.

11. “Verily, that Imperishable, O Gargi, is never seen but is the
Seer; It is never heard, but is the Hearer; It is never thought of, but is
the Thinker; It is never known, but is the Knower. There is no other seer
but This, there is no other hearer but This, there is no other thinker but
This, there is no other knower but This. By this imperishable, O Gargi, is
the unmanifested akasa pervaded.”

12. Then said Gargi: “Venerable brahmins, you may consider yourselves
fortunate if you can get off from him through bowing to him. None of you,
I believe, will defeat him in arguments about Brahman.

Thereupon the daughter of Vachaknu held her peace.

Chapter
IX

Yajnavalkya and Vidaghdha

1. Then Vidaghdha, the son of Sakala, asked him: “How many gods are
there, Yajnavalkya?”

Yajnavalkya ascertained the number through the group of mantras known as
the Nivid and said:

“As many as are mentioned in the Nivid of the Visve-devas-three
hundred and three and three

thousand and three.”

“Very good,” said Sakalya (the son of Sakala) and asked again:

“How many gods are there, Yajnavalkya?”

“Thirty-three.”

“Very good,” said Sakalya and asked again:

“How many gods are there, Yajnavalkya?”

“Six.”

“Very good,” said Sakalya and asked again:

“How many gods are there, Yajnavalkya?”

“Three.”

“Very good,” said Sakalya and asked again:

“How many gods are there, Yajnavalkya?”

“Two.”

“Very good,” said Sakalya and asked again:

“How many gods are there, Yajnavalkya?”

“One and a half.”

“Very good,” said Sakalya and asked again:

“How many gods are there, Yajnavalkya?”

“One.”

“Very good,” said Sakalya and asked:

“Which are those three hundred and three and those three thousand and
three?”

2. Yajnavalkya said: “There are only thirty-three gods. These others
are but manifestations of them.”

“Which are these thirty-three?”

“The eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras and the twelve Adityas-these are
thirty-one. And Indra and

Prajapati make up the thirty-three.”

3. “Which are the Vasus?” asked Sakalya.

“Fire, the earth, the air, the sky, the sun, heaven, the moon and the
stars-these are the Vasus; for in

them all this universe is placed (vasavah). Therefore they are called
Vasus.

4. “Which are the Rudras?” asked Sakalya.

“The ten organs in the human body, with the mind as the eleventh.
When they depart from this

mortal body, they make one’s relatives weep. Because they make them weep (rud),
therefore they

are called Rudras.

5. “Which are the Adityas?” asked Sakalya.

“There are twelve months in the year. These are the Adityas, because
they move along carrying

(adadanah) all this with them; therefore they are called Adityas.”

6. “Which is Indra and which is Prajapati?” asked Sakalya.

“The thunderclap is Indra and the sacrifice is Prajapati.”

“Which is the thunderclap?”

“The thunderbolt.”

“Which is the sacrifice?”

“The animals.”

7. “Which are the six gods?” asked Sakalya.

“Fire, the earth, the air, the sky, the sun and heaven; for these six
comprise all those.”

8. “Which are the three gods?” asked Sakalya.

“These three worlds, because all those gods are comprised in these
three.”

“Which are the two gods?”

“Matter and the vital breath (prana).”

“Which are the one and a half?”

“This air that blows.”

9. Yajnavalkya said: “Concerning this some say: ‘Since the air blows
as one substance, how can it be

one and a half (adhyardha)?’ The answer is: It is one and a half because
by its presence everything

attains surpassing glory (adhyardhnot).”

“Which is the one God?”

“The vital breath (Hiranyagarbha); it is Brahman which is called That
(Tyat).”

10. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
the earth, whose organ of vision

is fire, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the
body and organs in their

entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the Being who is in this body. Go on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity (cause)?”

“Nectar (chyle),” said Yajnavalkya.

11. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
lust (kama), whose organ of

vision is the intellect, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate
support of the body and

organs in their entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the Being who is identified with lust. Go on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity?”

“Women,” said Yajnavalkya.

12. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
colours, whose organ of vision is

the eye, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the
body and organs in their

entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the Being who is in the sun. Go on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity?”

“Truth (the eye),” said Yajnavalkya.

13. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
the akasa, whose organ of vision

is the ear, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of the
body and organs in their

entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the Being who is identified with the ear and with the time
of hearing. Go on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity?”

“The quarters,” said Yajnavalkya.

14. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
darkness, whose organ of vision

is the intellect, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support
of the body and organs in

their entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the Being who is identified with shadow (ignorance). Go
on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity?”

“Death,” said Yajnavalkya.

15. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
particular colours, whose organ

of vision is the eye, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate
support of the body and organs

in their entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the being who is in the mirror. Go on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity?”

“The vital breath,” said Yajnavalkya.

16. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
water, whose organ of vision is

the intellect, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the Being who is in water. Go on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity?”

“Varuna (rain),” said Yajnavalkya.

17. Sakalya said: “Verily, whosoever knows that Being whose body is
semen, whose organ of vision is

the intellect, whose light is the mind and who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety, he indeed knows, O Yajnavalkya.”

“I know that Being of whom you speak-who is the ultimate support of
the body and organs in their

entirety. It is the Being who is identified with the son. Go on, Sakalya.”

“Who is His deity?”

“Prajapati (the father),” said Yajnavalkya.

18. When Sakalya kept silent Yajnavalkya addressed him thus:

“Sakalya, have these brahmins made you their instrument such as tongs
for burning charcoal?”

19-20. “Yajnavalkya,” said Sakalya, “what Brahman do you
know, that you have thus flouted these Vedic

scholars of Kuru and Panchala?”

Yajnavalkya replied: “I know the quarters, with their deities and
supports.”

Sakalya said: “If you know the quarters, with their deities and
supports, what deity are you

identified with in the east?”

“With the deity sun.”

“In what does the sun find its support?”

“The eye.

“In what does the eye find its support?”

“Colours, for one sees colours with the eye.”

“In what do colours find their support?”

“The heart (mind),” said Yajnavalkya, “for one knows
colours through the heart. Therefore it is in

the heart that colours find their support.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

21. “Yajnavalkya,” said Sakalya, “what deity are you
identified with in the south?”

“With the deity Yama (the god of justice).”

“In what does Yama find his support?”

“The sacrifice.”

“In what does the sacrifice find its support?”

“The remuneration of the priests.”

“In what does the remuneration find its support?”

“Faith, for when a man has faith he remunerates the priest. Therefore
it is in faith that the

remuneration finds its support.”

“In what does faith find its support?”

“The heart (mind),” said Yajnavalkya, “for one knows faith
through the heart. Therefore it is in the

heart that faith finds its support.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

22. “Yajnavalkya,” said Sakalya, “what deity are you
identified with in the west?”

“With the deity Varuna (the god of rain).”

“In what does Varuna find his support?”

“Water.”

“In what does water find its support?”

“Semen.”

“In what does semen find its support?”

“The heart,” said Yajnavalkya. “Therefore they say of a
new-born child who resembles his father

that it seems as if he has sprung from his father’s heart-that he has been
created of his father’s

heart, as it were. Therefore it is in the heart that semen finds its
support.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

23. “Yajnavalkya,” said Sakalya, “what deity are you
identified with in the north?”

“With the deity Soma (the moon and the creeper of that name).”

“In what does Soma find its support?”

“The initiatory rite.”

“In what does initiation find its support?”

“Truth. Therefore they say to the one who is initiated: ‘Speak the
truth’; for it is in the truth that

initiation finds its support.”

“In what does the truth find its support?”

“The heart,” said Yajnavalkya, “for through the heart one
knows the truth; therefore it is in the heart

that the truth finds its support.”

“Just so, Yajnavalkya.”

24. “What deity,” said Sakalya, “are you identified with in
the fixed direction (i.e. overhead)?”

“With the deity fire.”

“In what does fire find its support?”

“Speech.”

“In what does speech find its support?”

“The heart.”

“In what does the heart find its support?”

25. “You ghost,” said Yajnavalkya, “that you think that the
heart should be elsewhere than in ourselves!

If it were elsewhere than in ourselves, dogs would eat this body or birds
tear it to pieces.”

26. “In what do the body and the heart find their support?”
asked Sakalya.

“In the prana.”

“In what does the prana find its support?”

“In the apana.”

“In what does the apana find its support?”

“In the vyana.”

“In what does the vyana find its support?”

“In the udana.”

“In what does the udana find its support?”

“In the samana.”

Here the Upanishad itself states:

This self is That which has been described as “Not this, not
this.”

It is imperceptible, for It is never perceived; undecaying, for It never
decays; unattached, for It is never attached; unfettered, for It never
feels pain and never suffers injury.

Yajnavalkya said: “These are the eight abodes, the eight organs of
vision, the eight deities and the eight beings.

“Now I ask you about that Person who is to be known only from the
Upanishads, who definitely projects those beings and again withdraws them
into Himself and who is at the same time transcendental.

“If you cannot clearly explain Him to me, your head shall fall off?’
Sakalya did not know Him; his head fell off; and robbers snatched away his
bones, mistaking them for something else.

27. Then Yajnavalkya said: “Venerable brahmins, whosoever among you
wishes to question me may now do so, or all of you may. Or whosoever among
you desires it, I shall question him, or I shall question all of you.

But the brahmins did not dare.

28. Yajnavalkya interrogated them with the following verses:

As is a mighty tree, so indeed is a man: this is true. His hairs are the
leaves and his skin is the outer bark.

From his skin blood flows and from the bark, sap. Therefore when a man is
Wounded blood flows, as sap from a tree that is injured.

His flesh is its inner bark and his nerves are its innermost layer of
bark, which is tough. His bones lie within, as does the wood of the tree.
His marrow resembles the pith.

A tree, when it is felled, springs again from its root in a new form; from
what root, tell me, does a man spring forth after he is cut off by death?

Do not say: From the semen, for that is produced from the living man. A
tree springs from the seed as well; after it is dead it certainly springs
again.

If a tree is pulled up with its root, it will not spring again. From what
root, tell me, does a mortal spring forth after he is cut off by death?

If you think he is indeed born, I say: No, he is born again. Now who
should again bring him forth?

The Upanishad states: It is Brahman, which is absolute Knowledge and
Bliss, the ultimate goal of him who offers wealth and also of him who has
realized Brahman and stands firm in It.

 


 

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This ear whispered and soft spoken sleep meditation uses metaphors of your thoughts, state of consciousness and emotional state to knock you out and have vivid dreams. This hypnosis-like induction... http://www.youtube.com/v/kiukjf1OAd8?version=3&f=videos&app=youtube_gdata See more here: GO TO SLEEP meditation with 3D SHOE CLICKING: Binaural ASMR whisper & soft spoken EAR relaxation
straight-outta-compton.jpg Straight Outta Compton
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Straight Outta Compton tells the true story of how five young cultural rebels - armed only with their lyrics, swagger, bravado and raw talent - stood up to the authorities that meant to keep them down and formed the world's most dangerous group, N.W.A. And as they spoke the truth… ∞
Thumbnail Meditation for anxiety and stress relief
in Consciousness, free, Full, meditation, People & Blogs, relaxation, Stress, video, yoga
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Free online guided meditation (for anxiety and stress relief) Introduction video:- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKHSvIUlsrw To learn the Full kriya yoga me... http://www.youtube.com/v/FTqGU31H2P8?version=3&f=videos&app=youtube_gdata View post: Meditation for anxiety and stress relief
osho-the-ultimate-challenge-choosing-life.jpg OSHO: The Ultimate Challenge – Choosing Life
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From the series: INNER & OUTER ECOLOGY - a revolution in consciousness Osho International presents in this new series "Inner and Outer Ecology" a selection of talks in which Osho addresses issues related to humanity and our behavior on planet Earth. He says that "this is the only planet in… ∞
brand-a-second-coming.jpg BRAND: A Second Coming
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BRAND: A Second Coming chronicles actor / comedian / activist Russell Brand on his journey from addict, self-proclaimed narcissist and Hollywood star living in the fast-lane to his current, and unexpected, role as political disruptor & newfound hero to the underserved. source
Thumbnail 10 HOURS MEDITATION MUSIC
in Entertainment, meditate, meditation, relaxation, sleep, spirituality
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There are no drums or any thing too fancy or complicated here. http://www.youtube.com/v/IZNU7sCEDLM?version=3&f=videos&app=youtube_gdata More: 10 HOURS MEDITATION MUSIC
alpine-dance-tranquil-world-relaxation-with-music-nature.jpg Alpine Dance: Tranquil World – Relaxation with Music & Nature
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Spectacular natural scenes thoughtfully blended with superb classical music. Visit the winter wonders of an Alpine paradise and relax with stunning images of the native flora and fauna while Tchaikovsky, Vivaldi, Wagner and other great composers set the mood. Perfect for reading! Winter Wonders: Big horn sheep, eagles and fresh… ∞
Thumbnail Activating Your Chakras Through the Light Rays {Guided Meditation}
in cia, meditation, Music, People & Blogs, relaxation, ritual, spirit, spiritual, will
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A brilliant and profound chakra activation meditation that will take you on a very special spiritual journey. http://www.youtube.com/v/WMB8rBWUWFs?version=3&f=videos&app=youtube_gdata Read the original here: Activating Your Chakras Through the Light Rays {Guided Meditation}
father-of-lights.jpg Father of Lights
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If God could be filmed, what would He look like? In this explosive documentary, filmmaker Darren Wilson attempts to do the impossible: film God and understand His character. Along the way, Darren and his team encounter powerful witch doctors, violent gang leaders, Hindu holy men, and everyday people with extraordinary… ∞
ayahuasca-vine-of-the-soul.jpg Ayahuasca: Vine of the Soul
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Can a sacred plant medicine from the Amazon heal our minds and spirits? In the heart of the jungle, a naturopathic doctor and an accountant experience life-altering epiphanies when they drink the psychoactive brew ayahuasca, the 'Vine of the Soul'. This award-winning documentary explores the mystery of ayahuasca shamanism, offering… ∞
How To Meditate – The No Bullshit Guide to Meditation
in Howto & Style, meditate, meditation, relaxation, spiritual, tech, technique
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How To Meditate - The most effective meditation technique, plus tips for how to avoid the most common meditation mistakes. http://www.actualized.org 100+ Greatest Personal Development Concepts... http://www.youtube.com/v/wirV265ZYSw?version=3&f=videos&app=youtube_gdata Read the rest here: How To Meditate - The No Bullshit Guide to Meditation
funny-face.jpg Funny Face
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This filmed version of the 1927 George Gershwin Broadway musical Funny Face utilizes the play's original star, Fred Astaire, and several of the original tunes, then goes merrily off on its own. Astaire is cast as as fashion photographer Dick Avery (a character based on Richard Avedon, the film's "visual… ∞
Thumbnail Vajrapani
in Ancient Mysteries, Gnostic, Occult
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Indian painting of Vajrapani Bodhisattva - From the Ajanta Caves (Wikimedia)   Vajrapani is the embodiment of the spiritual strength of all the Buddhas. He appears in a wrathful aspect, displaying his power to overcome outer, inner and secret obstacles. Vajrap??i (Sanskrit, "Vajra in [his] hand") is one of the… ∞
buck.jpg Buck
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BUCK, a richly textured and visually stunning film, follows Brannaman from his abusive childhood to his phenomenally successful approach to horses. A real-life "horse-whisperer", he eschews the violence of his upbringing and teaches people to communicate with their horses through leadership and sensitivity, not punishment. Buck possesses near magical abilities… ∞
yoga-is-a-transformational-journey.jpg Yoga Is: A Transformational Journey
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This is the story of a woman who thought she had it all -- until she lost her beloved mother to cancer. Trying to process and understand her profound grief, Suzanne embarked on a journey and turned to a deeper practice of yoga. Along the way, she discovers what YOGA… ∞